Power Supply PCB Stackup

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What Are The Applications Of Power Supply PCB?

Some of importants applications of power supply PCB are as belows:

1.It’s used in most of all low power applications
2.It’s used for the linear regulators for the power control
3.It’s used for the switching regulators for integrating with other circuits
4.It’s used in all equipment that plug into a wall outlet
5.It’s plays a role as leading signal and power integrity
6.It’s used PWM to introduce steady and regulation in the output voltage
7..It’s also colation the noise coming from the output.

Applications Of Power Supply PCB
Shelf Life Of Power Supply PCB

What Is The Shelf Life Of Power Supply PCB?

The shelf life of the power supply PCB reach to 5 -8 years.

However, the shelf life of the power supplies of PCBs requires on the quality of production and methods adopted to proceed Solder are making the power supplies impact their shelf life.

The shelf life of many other models of power supply of PCB ranges up to many years in case of brand new projects.

What Dual Power Supply PCB?

Dual Power Supply PCB is understanding defined as a single source that provides two aspects one negative and the other positive.

It’s one of the unique power supply circuits for PCBs due to it offers a wide range of advantages to the device functions.

Many susceptible appliances and devices, including laptops and televisions,demands a dual power supply circuit PCB for effcient performance.

Dual Power Supply PCB

If you are looking for a Power Supply PCB, then Venture is the right place for you!

Venture has been manufacturing Power Supply PCBs for more than 1o years. We are offering a wide selection of high-quality Power Supply PCB so that you will surely find your desired Power Supply PCB.

You can send us your design of the Power Supply PCB that you need and we will be happy to provide what you are needing.

Your Leading Power Supply PCB Stack-up Supplier in China

Venture is a reliable manufacturer and supplier of Power Supply PCBs. We are manufacturing a reliable quality of Power Supply PCBs with competitive prices. We supply different types of Power Supply PCBs for different applications such as an amplifier, computer, printer, and etc.

There are two types of power supplies, it is AC and DC power supply. The part of the hardware that is used is to convert the provided power from the outlet into usable power to many parts inside the electrical device is the power supply unit.

Power Supply PCB design takes the right analysis and layout tools to prevent the noise and ensure the signal integrity throughout your board. It is about more than just converting between AC and DC power. However, there are power and signal integrity issues to consider, as well as thermal management issues that arise with high power electronics.

Power supply PCB design can encompass more than just an actual power supply. The systems that are ranging from personal computers to home appliances need a power supply to convert AC power to DC power with low noise content.

Some boards contain power supply sub-circuits. The power supply circuit is the source of recharging for circuit boards and electronic systems.

Find a reliable supplier of power supply PCB and choose Venture. We accept small or large orders of power supply PCBs.

If you have more questions regarding power supply PCBs, don’t hesitate to contact us.

Power Supply PCB: The Ultimate FAQ Guide

Power-Supply-PCB-The-Ultimate-FAQ-Guide

Before choosing power supply PCB, read this guide.

Because it has all information that will help you choose high performance and reliable power PCB.

Keep reading to learn more.

What Is Power Supply PCB?

Power supply PCB is an electronic circuit that is designed to offer various AC and DC voltages for the operations of an equipment.

Power Supply PCB

Power Supply PCB

Which are the Different Types of Power Supply PCB?

Some of the available options include:

Inverter Power Supply PCB

This type of power supply changes an input DC voltage into an AC output voltage. It increases the voltage.

Converter Power Supply PCB

This type of power supply PCB takes in an AC or DC voltage and changes it to a DC voltage as its output.

It decreases the voltage or takes it in a negative direction.

What Is The Difference Between A Linear Mode Vs. Switch Mode Power Supply PCB Regulator?

A linear mode power supply PCB primarily converts an AC input into DC from the transformers primary side.

A voltage regulator that is part of the circuitry provides a continual voltage regardless of the load.

They are normally used in systems with lower power. Their merits are their reliability, they are structurally simple, their cost is relatively low cost and they produce low noise.

However, they are very inefficient when it comes to higher power applications.

Switch mode power supply PCB contains a switching circuitry that converts a rectified DC into a high-frequency AC from the bridge circuit.

A control signal is used to fix the level of frequency which switches the transistor off or on.

Basically, SMPS PCB regulators are extra intricate compared to linear mode power supplies.

Noise due to switching creates an Electromagnetic interference that affects routing of traces during PCB layout.

Switch mode power supplies are very effective thus making use of smaller components better than linear power supplies. They are often used in digital systems.

What Are The Main Functions Of Power Supply PCB?

The major uses of power supply PCB include:

  • Converting AC to a pulsating DC voltage by either half or full wave rectification.
  • Distributing a proper DC voltage to every component in an electronic appliance.
  • Stepping voltages up or down using the transformer to the desired AC line voltage.
  • Regulating output power supply in proportion to the load applied.
  • Filtering a pulsating DC voltage to a pure and steady DC voltage for equipment use.
  • Providing some form of voltage division to meet the equipment’s requirements.

Application of Power Supply PCB

Application of Power Supply PCB

Which Are The Essential Additional Circuit Modules Of Power Supply PCB?

  • Rectifier Blocks: They are used to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) by letting current flow in the device in one direction.
  • Power Factor Control Blocks: these blocks compensate the lagging current by use of capacitors to the supply and creating a leading current.The capacitance should be as close to unity as possible.
  • Input Filter Circuit Blocks: main purpose is to prevent electromagnetic interference created by the switching source from accessing the power line and affecting the device.They also prevent high frequency voltage found on the power line from going through the power supply’s output.
  • Control And Feedback Circuits: they control the output of a device using its value as the feedback signal. The feedback signal can then be referenced to another signal thus generating an error signal.This signal is then filtered by the controller to generate a control input for the system.
  • Output Regulator Circuits: used to maintain a steady output voltage level irrespective of the amount of current drawn from the power supply.It monitors current drawn by the load then decreases or increases the voltage accordingly thus keeping the voltage level constant.
  • Output Filter Circuit Blocks: they smoothen out ripples in a rectified DC to generate an even and direct current.Such a current is appropriate even for circuits that are very sensitive.
  • Overvoltage And Overcurrent Protection Blocks: circuit breakers and fuses are used to prevent overvoltage while a small low-power comparison circuit handles Undervoltage.

What Are The Important Properties Of Power Supply PCB Material To Look For?

Some of the most important properties include:

Base Material Should Of High Quality

The ability of the material to conduct the electron flow highly determines the reliability of a power supply PCB material. This capacity can be achieved if the material is of extreme quality.

An excellent base material assists in avoiding problems such as delamination brought about by open circuits and inflation.

Thickness Of The Hole Wall

The hole wall is clad in copper and its thickness maintained at 25 microns. This characteristic increases the boards reliability as it strengthens its capability to resist expansion.

Should Be Solder Resistant

The power supply PCB board should be resilient to damage from soldering. The solder should also not peel when subjected to extreme conditions.

Using low quality PCB boards exposes the copper board to substances that are very corrosive. It also causes undue hardness.

Positional Tolerance

The PCB material has to have a well-defined tolerance of vias, drill holes and other mechanical features. The idea is to avoid putting the board to a stress test.

This ensures they are used precisely as per the limitations defined to avoid losing their reliability.

Materials With No Track Cut

A highly reliable power supply PCB material should not have any break lines. As there is no break line, the chances of a discontinuity in the flow of current is reduced to zero.

Which Are The Key Considerations When Designing Power Supply PCB?

An efficient power supply PCB must be designed in such a way that it delivers clean power with minimal noise. Some of the design considerations include;

Noise

To minimize the chances of noise creating EMI for the whole board, the most compact packages possible should be used.

Also, the most optimized and tightest and component placement and shorter routing help in reducing the noise.

Current

The power supply PCB deals with very high levels of current. This means that adequate copper weight and trace widths have to be used to handle it.

Heat

A power supply will always get hot. The design should be such that the power supply PCB dissipates as much heat as possible.

Layer Stackup

The power plane or ground should be between routing and the components of the power supply and the inner layer with delicate signals.

This applies in multilayered PCB configuration.

The plane acts as a safeguard protecting delicate traces of signal from routing on the outer layer and from noisy power components.

Trace Routing

Placement with direct short traces should be complemented by routing. Traces for the current should be wide enough.

Rounded corners and 45 degrees should be used in place of right angles. The use of vias add inductance as power traces and they should be avoided.

Placement Of Components

The components should be kept close by each other to reduce their lengths of trace and near to appliances that receive the load.

The parts need to be placed in such a way that the path of the power is small and straight through them.

Power Supply PCB Assembly

Power Supply PCB Assembly

How Do You Lay Out The Current Loops In Power Supply PCB Layout To Reduce Noise Generation And Improve Performance Efficiency?

Operational performance and noise generation of a power supply PCB largely depends on current flow taking place in loops.

The major requirement is to keep different current loops separate and let them pass through a conductor as short as possible.

The currents in the loop are majorly DC but they contain some components of AC which make up the conducted EMI.

By keeping conductor length short, the design will only allow a small part of the AC energy to emit into the environment.

Most current loops in the output rectifier and power switch carry pulsating high peak DC currents with sharp edges and trapezoidal wave forms.

The design should have these loops lay out in a manner that they use traces of considerable width and enclose very small area.

As the resistance and inductance displayed by trace varies inversely proportional to their width, slight traces have advanced resistance and show higher inductance.

The trace width making these loops dictate the drop in voltage across the loops.

RF radiations are created when high peak pulsating DC currenta pass through the high inductance of thin traces.

Furthermore, the wide traces offer better heat removal from the rectifiiers and power switches.

Does Ground Routing Influence The Operational Performance Of Power Supply PCB?

Improper interconnections of ground routing can make a power supply PCB unstable. High current loops are required to separate ground routings and prevent them from influencing each other.

Grounds carry both AC and DC signals from varied points of the circuit hence it should be considered separately. This is to avoid interconnections.

Broadly, power supply PCB design should distinguish between high current output ground, high current input ground and low-level control ground.

These three grounds should meet near the input return.

How Does Capacitor Layout of Power Supply PCB Affect Performance?

The equivalent series inductance and equivalent series resistance of the filter capacitors contribute to internal heating of the capacitors.

The level of ripple current is also affected in the output of the power supply PCB.

Several capacitors arranged in parallel will lower the ESR and ESL in the power supply PCB.

Since the current sharing between the capacitors depends on the power supply PCB layout between components, capacitors of similar ratings must be used.

Is It Mandatory For Power Supply PCBs To Have EMI Filters?

Every time the power leads leave or enter the enclosure of a power supply PCB, they have the ability to radiate electromagnetic interference.

According to regulatory bodies, the power supply PCB has to maintain its EMI levels below the extreme level specified in their frequency range.

It is therefore important to reduce the radiation levels by using EMI filters. It is physically impossible to completely eliminate the radiation.

The EMI design allows it to inhibit the high frequency noise from the pulse width modulation (PWM) switching the power supply PCB uses.

The noise is then returned to the ground.

The components of the of the filter circuit have to be laid out properly.

This helps prevent some components switching energy coupling into the traces linking them and escaping into the environment.

Which Are The EMI Shielding Techniques In Power Supply PCB Design?

The ground plane usually acts as the initial line of protection against EMI noise in a power supply PCB.

This is because circuits need a floating ground to function.

The ground plane provides a 0V reference line to the ground terminal of the power supply for the circuits return path. EMI shielding techniques depend on how effectively you use the ground plane.

The EMI shielding techniques using ground plane include;

Connect Decoupling Capacitors Or Bypass To Ground Plane

The return current path can be reduced by connecting either decoupling capacitors or bypass to the ground.

This significantly decreases the loop size and consequently radiation.

A bypass capacitor must never be connected between an unrelated ground plane and a power plane. This can cause harmful capacitive coupling.

Using A Board That Is Multi-Layered

If the ground plane is restricted, then an additional layer gives more choices on handling traces of high speed on power supply PCB.

If the differential pairs are generating crosstalk, they can be routed in an inner layer for noise reduction.

Use Split Ground Planes With Caution

Splitting ground planes requires very valid reasons like separating digital and analogue grounds to evade coupling of the noise. Ground planes that are split behave like slot antennas hence radiate.

Connecting Split Ground Planes At A Solitary Point Only

More loops are created with an increase in common ground connections.

This will lead to an increase in radiated EMI from the power supply PCB.

What Are The Challenges During Lead-Free Soldering Of Power Supply PCB Assembly With Large Components?

Components with large mass and volume present a preheating problem. They take more time to heat up as they have a large mass.

Other adjacent components are starved of heat until the large components have adequately heated up.

The shadow effect created results in improper soldering since the small components are not allowed to heat up adequately.

Heavy copper tracks require more heat to reach the optimum temperature before soldering due to their high mass.

If the necessary preheat temperature is not achieved, the solder on their pads will improperly melt and components will not stick to them.

Why Is It Recommended To Place Components Of Power Supply PCB Closer Together During Assembly?

The parts are kept in close proximity to reduce lengths of their trace and also near to the devices that receive the load.

This will ensure that the path of the power directly goes through them and is short.

The input capacitor is placed next to the IC that are both on the same layer. The inductor should also be on the same layer as the IC and close to it.

The output capacitor must be positioned proximately next to the inductor so as to reduce its routing.

After placing components of the main board, the residual parts of the power supply PCB are then placed as close as possible.

How Does Heavy Copper Track Influence Power Supply PCB Assembling Process?

Due to its large mass, the copper track requires additional heat to reached the desired temperatures before soldering.

The solder on the pads of the heavy copper tracks will not melt properly if tracks do not reach optimum preheat temperatures.

This means that the components will not adhere to the solder.

Thermal profiles need to be adjusted for such assemblies going through reflow machine to let them sufficiently heat up before reaching soldering zone.

This may require fixing thermocouples on specific points on the power supply PCB especially on the heavy copper traces and larger components.

This will help in assessing the nature of temperature change undergone during their path through the reflow machine.

Copper Track of Power Supply PCB

Copper Track of Power Supply PCB

What Is The Role Of PWM Circuit In Power Supply PCB?

Pulse width modulation is used to control the frequency at which the transistor switches in a switching regulator.

This forms part of the regulation feedback loop.

Another purpose of Pulse width modulation (PWM) is to adjust the duty cycle for a square wave. This modulated series of pulses controls the switching rate.

This can optionally step down (buck mode) or step up (boost mode) the output voltage of the power supply.

Which Are The Thermal Management Options For Power Supply PCB?

You should consider any of the following options:

Identifying High-Current Traces And Thermal Hotspots

Thermal effects must be studied in order to fabricate a thermally stable power supply PCB. Thermal simulation or thermal modelling is used to find hotspots.

Current flow analysis must be carried out along thermal simulation because heat generation is caused by high-current traces.

The proper geometrical arrangement of high-current traces and components enables uniform distribution of heat.

High current traces must be directed away from thermally responsive components such as op-amps and sensors.

Pad Design

Pad thickness is important in heat management in a power supply PCB. The heat is dissipated straight towards the copper layer.

The top copper pad must contain sufficient area and thickness to provide enough heat spreading.

Heat sinks are usually mounted on the copper pads bottom side if the power supply PCB design requires them.

The bottom copper pad must contain sufficient coverage to allow maximum heat transfer to the heatsink.

Copper Thickness And Width Of Traces

The width and thickness of traces or copper pads have a vital role in the thermal management of PCB design.

The thickness of copper trace must be sufficient enough to offer a low impedance route for the current going through it.

The resistance from the vias and traces of copper account for heat generation and significant loss of power. This happens especially when they have high current density.

Sufficient thickness and trace width are recommended to decrease heat generation.

Placement Of High Power Components

High power components like processors and microcontrollers must be located at the center of the power supply PCB for better heat dissipation.

If such a component is placed near the brink of PCB, heat will be amassed at the edge and increase the PCB temperature.

If the component is placed at the center of the PCB, the heat will scatter in all directions over the surface.

High power components should also be placed away from sensitive devices and proper spacing observed between two high-power devices.

High power components should be placed evenly across the power supply PCB.

PCB Thermal Vias Design

Thermal vias are heat-conducting barrels of copper that run between the bottom and top of the PCB board.

The vias are efficient thermal conductors that transfer away the heat from critical electronic components.

The vias are normally used to enable rapid heat dissipation away from any surface mount device (SMD).

Designers can also use thermal vias for heat transfer vertically between conductive layers.

Heat Sink

This is a cooling method that transmits dissipated heat from power supply PCB components into a medium. The heat sinks apply the principle of conduction.

The flow of heat also occurs to areas of low temperature from areas of high temperature. Quantity of the flow heat is directly proportional to the difference in temperature.

Designers can pick a suitable heat sink based on various factors.

These include thermal interface used, spacing between fins, number of fins, mounting technique or thermal resistivity of the material used.

Cooling Fans

The cooling fan utilizes convective heat transferring method which offers designers an efficient way of heat dissipation away from components.

The fans efficiency depends on compatibility of placing it and its ability to push a precise volume of air from the board.

Designers consider things like size, noise, power requirements, friction, cost and noise when selecting the fan.

The fans main purpose is to push a volume of air, meaning capacity is the greater factor when choosing a cooling fan.

Soldering Concentration

Thickness of soldering joints on the device should be ambient and even to reduce accumulation of heat on the component leads.

Extra caution should be taken when soldering near vias.

There is a high chance of the solder overfilling the hole and leading to bumps on the bottom.

This reduces the contact area of the heat sink.

Integrated Cooling Methods

These cooling methods are used to achieve a higher coefficient of heat conductivity compared to regular fan set ups and heat sinks.

A cooling agent is blown through specific vias directly to the bottom of the power supply PCB or any heating components.

The number of vias used is dependent on the thermal criteria of the components mounted.

What Is The Difference Between Isolated And Non-Isolated Switch-Mode Power Supply PCB?

An isolated switch-mode power supply PCB isolates the output from the input by physically and electrically separating the circuit into two units.

This is done to prevent direct current flow between the output and input and is achieved by use of a transformer.

A non-isolated switch-mode power supply PCB has a solitary circuit in which the current can flow between output and input.

The output and input share a common ground.

Which Are The Various Types Of Non-Isolated SMPS PCBs?

Some of the most common options include:

Buck Converter (Step-Down)

The buck or step-down converter transforms a high voltage input to a stabilized low voltage output.

Since it is non-isolated, it is preferably fit to step down voltages working as a DC-DC converter.

Buck Converter Power Supply PCB Assembly

Buck Converter Power Supply PCB Assembly

Boost/Step-Up Converter

The boost or step-up converter transforms a low voltage input into a stabilized greater voltage input.

This converter is ideal for power factor correction because the continuous inductor current is the boost input current.

Buck-Boost Converter (Stepdown/Step-Up)

This is a mixture of the boost and buck converter which generates a negative voltage output.

This can be less or greater than input voltage depending on the duty cycle.

Both output and input currents pulsate hence low levels of ripple are very hard to attain.

What Are The Problems Of Applying Incorrect Power Supply PCB Trace Width Tolerance?

Performance

Using an incorrect trace width tolerance power supply PCB has a large effect on the performance of the PCBs electrical-wise.

Controlled impedance traces need to have their thicknesses calculated for nearby power or ground planes and board material in the layer stackup.

The width of the traces also has an adverse effect on the performance of the signal integrity of the power supply PCB.

Supposing the traces are too thin to be compromised in the process of board fabrication, then total board integrity gets is interfered with.

Subsequently, if the traces are too thin, the high current loads tend to heat up and scorch through.

The high current traces routing width is calculated for the thickness and width along with the quantity of current carried by the trace.

Assembly

Trace widths that are too big impact how effortlessly the PCB board solders during assembly.

Extensive traces used for ground and power uses act as heat sinks resulting in uneven heating thus resulting in bad solder joints.

This can also cause minor passive surface mount constituents to rise on end during solder reflow. Such a condition is called “tombstoning”.

Fabrication

Consistent use of very small trace widths can result in costly fabrication challenges.

When the trace metal is carved away, more of it may be carved away than projected.

The smaller the trace, the highly vulnerable it is to excess metal removal.

This procedure has to be carefully regulated by the manufacturer when introducing small trace widths.

Etching complications can also impact isolated long traces that etch down faster than the traces that are grouped.

Trace widths that are small are reliant on the copper weight that is used to assemble the board layer.

How Can You Prevent Overcurrent And Overvoltage In Power Supply PCB Assembly?

Power Supply PCB Assembly

Power Supply PCB Assembly

Overcurrent

Overcurrent in a power supply PCB can initiate a series of failures, start a fire and put the user at risk.

The best prevention is a fuse or a fusible link.

When the current flow exceeds the current threshold of the fuse, it causes the special fuse wire to overheat, melt and open.

This reduces the current to the power supply PCB to zero.

Once the fuse blows up, the current flow is totally cut off and can only be restored by replacing the fuse.

A more complex circuit-breaker can also be used as an alternative to the fuse. This does not need replacement after activation.

Some circuit-breakers are magnetically activated and some are thermally activated.

Whichever the case, the breaker is a current-triggered device just like a fuse.

Undervoltage

Undervoltage lock out (UVLO) ensures that the power supply PCB does not try to operate when its input voltage is too low. This is majorly done for two reasons.

First, the circuitry within the converter or supply may malfunction or act in an indeterminate way when the DC voltage is too low.

This may lead to damage of some high power components.

Secondly, it prevents the converter or supply from drawing from the primary power if it cannot produce valid output power.

To implement Undervoltage lock out, a low-power small comparison circuit within the power supply PCB compares the input voltage to a set threshold.

It then puts the unit into dormant until the threshold is crossed.

To ensure that the Undervoltage lock out does not chatter around the threshold, a slight amount of hysteresis is added.

Which Are The Regulatory Standards For Power Supply PCB?

The associated International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are the main agencies responsible for the electrical regulatory standards.

Some of the regulatory standards include;

IEC 62368 (Audio/Video, ICT Equipment)

This standard aims at giving designers more flexibility in evaluation and product design by implementing Hazard Based Safety Engineering (HBSE).

HBSE principles identify potential hazards such as energy sources that cause injury and pain to others and finds ways of preventing such energy transfers.

IEC 60065 (Safety Of Video, Audio And Similar Electronic Apparatus)

This intends to protect against electric shock, fire and injury in respect to video, audio and similar equipment.

Power supply protective measures related to fire and shock require precautions with respect to insulation, limiting voltage or current and isolation.

IEC 60602-1 (Safety Of Medical Equipment)

It covers essential performance and basic safety applicable to medical electrical equipment. These include monitoring, surgical and hospital devices.

The regulation focuses more on increased levels of protection for creepage, insulation and isolation, clearance and leakage current.

IEC 60601-2 (EMC Standards)

This regulatory standard was introduced to address a common concern about electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

IEC 61010-1 (Safety Of Control, Measurement And Laboratory Equipment)

The standard focuses on control, measurement and laboratory systems such as oscilloscopes and meters.

They also extend to x-ray equipment. Emphasis is put on protection from electrical shocks, mechanical or burn injury and fire.

At Venture Electronics, we design and fabricate a range of power supply PCBs.

Contact us today for all your power supply PCB needs.

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