Load Board PCB
- Manufacturer of a standard model of Load Board PCB
- Highly-durable range of Load Board PCB
- Offer components with a friendly price
- Customizing own design of Load Board PCB
What Should Be Followed to Improve an ATE Load Board Design?
Here are some tips and hints for you to improve the design of an ATE load board:
1.Atypical BGA package of DUT pin has the loop backtraces in and out.
2.Capacitor-integrated steering SerDes is the third of short trace types. The trace routing concludes the two capacitor pins.
3.Capacitors that have perfect size are applied in the BGA.
4.Place the decoupling capacitors close to the BGA pins.
5.Bend directing is needed for signal transmission and gathering to keep up with signal trustworthiness.
Likewise, this is done to avoid signal irregularity.
How To Ensure The Quality Of A Load Board PCB?
You should check the following quality features of a PCB to ensure the quality of your Load Board PCB.
1.Validate the PCB design
2.Ensure that the Load Board can be feasibly manufactured
3.Check if the the selected materials and the components of the PCB are high-quality
4.Check and assure that your Load Board manufacturer has IPC certification
5.Check if your PCB can be tested using PCB test methods
6.Know the capabilities of the manufacturer to fabricate large-capacity PCB
What Types of Different Capacitors Are Used in a Load Board PCB?
Capacitors are one of the essential parts of PCBs. Capacitors store the electric charges for PCBs and supply electricity when needed.
There are different types of capacitors used for constructing Load Board PCBs.
The following are the various types of available capacitors for Load Board PCBs.
Your Best Load Board PCB Partner
Venture is your best manufacturer of automotive and industrial products in China. We have experienced load board PCB and leading design engineers. Venture is your top market supplier of load board PCB in the electronics industry. We are introducing to you the operations, designs, and sales for our load board PCB supplies. Our load board PCB services include:
- Pcb-load Board Card
- Semiconductor Load Board Circuit Board PCB
- Professional FR-4 Hasl Load Board
- Quest High-Density Load Board Kit
- Double side PCB – Load Board Pcb
- 10-layer Load Board PCB
Your Leading Supplier Load Board PCB in China
Nowadays, Venture electronic manufacturing and offers the design of load board PCB services for semiconductor components. We offer a wide range of load board PCB used in electronic circuits. Venture load board PCB is designed to meet the specific needs of each application. You can have load board PCB from us that are high temperature, low leakage, high frequency, parametric test, and parallel multi-DUT.
Venture manufactures load board PCB featuring clock signals routing, power supply distribution, signal integrity, and high-speed signals routing. When your project is complete it is required that the yield rate will be tested again after mounting, dicing, and welding. You may wrap load board PCB with plastic, metal, and ceramics. Our load board PCBs are made as durable and high-end for long time use.
Venture load board PCB usually consists of a contactor or test socket that holds an IC and mounts to a PCB. It also provides a transparent electrical and mechanical interface between the IC and the ATE essentially. With the increasing demands, you can have load board PCB from Venture that will necessarily assist you. We always introduce a comprehensive and sophisticated load board PCB.
If you are looking for an available load board PCB, Venture is the right place to be!. Venture is a stocking supplier and provider of load board PCB. We can perform design stages and support you from the technical specifications. Venture load board PCB is readily available and affordable for everyone.
Venture is an experienced manufacturer of load board PCB. Venture load board PCB must fit perfectly to your project as it has well-defined physical dimensions. With our immediate response from our 24/7 sales and tech support team, we will be your best load board PCB partner in China. At Venture, we can answer any load board PCB questions that you may have.
If you want more information about Venture, you can Email us!
Load Board PCB: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
Choosing a perfect load board PCB can be an overwhelming task.
A reason this guide will answer all your questions about load board PCB.
So, keep reading to learn more.
- What Is Load Board PCB?
- Where Can You Use Load Board PCB?
- What Is The Function Load Board PCB?
- Are There Limitations Of Load Board PCB?
- Which Components Make Load Board PCB?
- Which Quality Certifications Should Load Board PCB Conform To?
- How Do You Test Load Board PCB?
- Which Material Is Best For Manufacturing Load Board PCB?
- Which PCB Surface Finish Can You Apply On Load Board PCB?
- What Causes Load Board PCB To Fail?
- Which Features Should You Consider When Buying Load Board PCB?
- Are There Specific Design Rules For Load Board PCB?
- What Are The Properties Of Ideal Load Board PCB?
- How Much Does Load Board PCB Cost?
- How Does Probe Card PCB Compare To Load Card PCB?
- What Are The Benefits Of Importing Load Board PCB From China?
What Is Load Board PCB?
Load board PCB
Load Board PCB is a compulsory, custom made printed circuit board that acts as an interface for both mechanical and electrical between the tester (ATE) and the device under test (DUT).
The physical dimension of the Load Board is well defined to fit perfectly into the ATE.
Where Can You Use Load Board PCB?
Load board PCB can be used in military aircraft, vehicles, missiles, weapons, radar and wireless communications.
Load board PCBs enhance the safety of electronics.
What Is The Function Load Board PCB?
The main function of load board PCBs is to ensure the functionality of an electronic device.
They make it easier to determine faults or defects in the design.
Besides, load board PCB helps in the diagnosis when a problem occurs.
Also, they reduce the cycle time of testing and procedures.
Furthermore, they prevent the occurrence of data input errors during the testing of electronics.
Their test is fast and accurate.
Are There Limitations Of Load Board PCB?
Uneven distribution of the surface finishes on the load board PCB.
Load board PCBs are not suitable for fine-pitch applications.
They may at times contain lead if the design standards are not adhered to.
Human error in design and fabrication might result in thermal shocks in the PCB.
They are not easy to repair once damaged.
Load board PCBs cannot be updated or improved on once they have been printed.
They can only be used for a specific circuit.
For every circuit operation, redesigning the PCB is required to meet the operational demands.
The etching process on load board PCBs generates chemicals that are harmful to the environment and human beings.
Manufacturing of load board PCBs often require solder bridging to improve on functionality hence increasing the cost of production.
Which Components Make Load Board PCB?
Section of load board PCB with components
Different components make the functioning of load board PCB possible.
Resistors: resist current flow on PCB.
Capacitors: they store electric charges for a time in form of electrostatic charges.
they release the power when needed or when the power in the PCB goes down.
Inductors: they store electric current in form of a magnetic field.
They generate a magnetic field around the PCB whenever current flows through it.
Transformer: they transfer electrical energy across circuits in the PCB
Diodes: they ensure that current only flow in a single designed direction.
Transistors: they are amplifiers used to control the flow of current in the PCB.
Sensor: they detect the change in the environment and transfer a signal of the change to the load board PCB.
They convert physical energy signals to electrical energy signals.
Integrated circuits: they are a combination of semiconductors such as transistors, diodes, capacitors and resistors.
DUT application – a specific IC socket.
Interface pad for the tester
Stiffener for adding mechanical strength
Connectors for debug phase
Which Quality Certifications Should Load Board PCB Conform To?
IPC-6012 certification: deals with assessment and performance of PCBs.
IPC-A-600 certification: deals with acceptance criteria of PCBs.
The warping and twisting of PCB surface-mounted components should not exceed 0.75%.
ISO 9001 certification: deals with quality management systems of PCBs
UL94 certification: certifies the flammability of PCBs.
RoHS certification: deals with restrictions against the use of hazardous substances in the manufacture of PCBs.
REACH certification: deals with registration, evaluation, authorisation, and restriction of using chemically hazardous materials.
How Do You Test Load Board PCB?
Testing of load board PCBs is critical towards finding faults present in the PCB.
Testing ensures proper performance of the load board PCB.
Some of the testing methods are:
Load board PCB testing
In-circuit Testing (ICT)
It is a robust testing approach for PCBs.
Besides, it proves to be costly depending on the fixture and the board size.
It can cover up to 100% of PCB screening.
At most, you can 90% accuracy with this test method.
Every individual circuit is powered up for testing purposes.
This method uses fixed probes arrange in a specific pattern to match the ideal design of the PCB.
It checks for the integrity of solder connections.
Benefits Of ICT Method
- It has excellent consistency in conducting similar tests over and over in a particular way.
- Reduce the cost of the components that could be damaged due to human error.
- Cuts the cost of production
- Reduces the inventory for spares of components.
- Reduces the human errors in production
- It reduces the operation cost
- Simplifies and fastens the maintenance work
- It reduces the headcount and cost of maintenance.
Flying Probe Testing (FPT)
The flying probe test is very valuable in PCB production.
It is less expensive compared to the ICT method.
It tests features such as resistance, inductance, capacitance, open circuits, and diode issues.
Needles are attached to every circuit to test its features.
Advantages Of Flying Probe Test
- It does not require the development of custom tooling.
- Software programming in FPT takes less time to test to carry out a test as compared to ICT.
- FPT allows for checking of misalignment, orientation and polarity of components on PCBs
- The method can focus and test single individual components.
- The initial cost of the flying probe test is lower as compared to in-circuit testing.
- It is the ability to test the board verification for field-programmable arrays (FGAs)
- It is the ability to reach and test areas that would otherwise be inaccessible to the ICT method.
- It can effectively check PCB features such as impedance, resistance, capacitance, open circuits, tolerance of components and short circuits.
- It is suitable for highly complex electrical testing of PCBs.
Disadvantages Of Flying Probe Test
- The testing time is longer for a single PCB.
- It increases the cost of production of a unit PCB.
- It cannot test connectors and inactive components on the PCB.
- It is unsuitable for large scale production of PCBs.
- Components that operate simultaneously cannot be tested.
- It can only test one point at a time.
Automated Optical Inspection (AOI)
It uses one 2D or two 3D cameras for this testing.
The load board is verified according to the schematic design to compare the design to the actual board.
Boards that do not match the reference design is flagged for inspection.
It is used to detect issues promptly without shutting down the production process.
The board is not powered hence, the method may fail to cover 100% of the test parameters.
It is advisable to combine other methods when using the AOI method to test PCBs.
These combinations can be;
- AOI and ICT
- The flying probe and AOI
- AOI and functional testing.
Benefits Of AOI
- It can detect defects in production in real-time and quicker compared to other testing techniques.
- Data generated from this inspection method can be used to establish process enhancements at a later stage.
- It uses a variety of strategies to test different types of solder joints and components on PCBs.
It is used to find hidden faults in the PCB by passing x-rays in the PCB.
It checks the solder connections, inner traces and barrels.
- It allows for viewing hidden aspects of the Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs), packaging chips and solder connections.
- It helps in identifying underlying problems that cannot be seen optically.
The PCB is put under 48 to 168 hours of thermal pressure to determine the durability and performance.
- It accelerates the durability of PCBs by eliminating premature failure due to faulty parts.
- It improves the quality of PCBs meant for tough applications.
It ensures the real-time performance of the PCB.
It is done manually to check whether all features are working properly.
- It is a cost-effective method since it eliminates the need for testing equipment
- It works well alongside other inspection methods such as in-circuit testing, flying probe tests, etc.
- It applies to a wide variety of printed circuit board type
Which Material Is Best For Manufacturing Load Board PCB?
There are many PCB materials you can choose for the fabrication process.
Prepreg: this is a thin glass reinforced material that is coated with epoxy resins.
The resins will melt at high temperatures but begin to harden again after reaching a certain state.
These epoxy resins are FR4, Teflon, polyamide, etc.
Laminate: they are also called copper clad laminate.
This is the composed state of prepreg sheets.
These prepregs are composed of high pressure and thermal flow.
They compose the copper foil.
Solder mask: this is a green epoxy coating that is applied on the load board PCB.
It protects the board from corrosion and oxidation.
Which PCB Surface Finish Can You Apply On Load Board PCB?
PCB surface finishes are metal coating applied on the load board PCB surfaces to protect them from corrosion and oxidation.
These finishes include;
Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG): the load board PCB is gold plated with nickel to prevent oxidation.
ENIG is lead-free.
It is RoHS compliant.
It is a little expensive compared to other surface finish techniques.
Electroless Nickel Electroless Palladium Immersion Gold (ENEPIG): it is similar to ENIG only that palladium is added.
It is less costly compared to ENIG hence popular due to a combination of effectiveness and coast affordability.
Immersion Silver: it competes with ENIG for almost all features.
It is lead-free and RoHS compliant
It is also cost-effective.
What Causes Load Board PCB To Fail?
The short circuit of the circuit board is majorly caused by improper solder pad design.
It can also be caused by inappropriate part direction.
The PCB joint turning golden yellow: high temperatures cause the PCB solders to turn from silver-grey to golden yellow.
Dark and granular contacts on the board: caused by contaminants and excessive oxides in the tin which make the joint structure brittle.
Loose and misaligned PCB components: reflowing the solder may at times cause small parts to float on the molten solder.
This may make them move out of the target joint resulting in tilting.
Tilting is caused by insufficient board support, reflow oven setting, solder past problems, and human errors.
Open circuit board caused by the trace breaks.
In open circuits, the components are not soldered well on the PCB.
Welding problems such as disturbed solder joints, cold welding, and solder bridge.
Disturbed solder joints occur when the solder joint is disturbed before the solder solidifies.
Cold welding happens when the solder does not melt well resulting in rough surfaces and unreliable connections.
They can also occur due to excessive soldering preventing it from completely melting.
A solder bridge happens when the solder crosses and physically connect two leads.
They create undesigned connections and short circuits resulting in burning out of circuit components when the current is high.
Environmental reasons related to the PCB structure.
When the environment is not favourable to the PCB design, the PCB will fail due to circuit damage.
Extreme temperatures and changes, humidity, and high-intensity vibrations reduce the performance of the PCB or even be scrapped.
These changes destroy the solder joints, breaking copper traces and change the shape of the PCB.
Excessive moisture in the environment causes oxidation, corrosion, and rust on the PCB.
Dirty areas restrict airflow and cooling of PCB components resulting in overheating and degradation of the PCB performance.
Human error such as wrong production process followed incorrect placement of components, and unprofessional manufacturing specifications result in product defects.
Which Features Should You Consider When Buying Load Board PCB?
Validity of the PCB design.
Quality of the material used in the manufacturing process.
Certification of the load board PCB manufacturer.
The capability of the manufacturer to produce the load board PCB in large capacities.
The area where the load board PCB is going to be used.
Cost of the PCB.
The durability of the load board PCB.
Are There Specific Design Rules For Load Board PCB?
Power supply distribution: every supply voltage needed is assigned a separate power plane.
This helps to;
- Improve noise immunity between power supplies
- Allow assignment of individual power supply to a distinctive voltage later on.
A sense line is added as close to the DUT as a possible help in monitoring the output.
A decoupling capacitor is also used to reduce the power supply noise.
Signal routing: you should avoid overlaying power supply planes over the signal planes.
Handling each type of signal differs from the other.
Low-speed digital signal: they can share the same plane but must have the individual plane.
Trace length must be the same for all signals.
High-speed digital signal: they require high-performance instrumentation for measurement.
The speed and accuracy of these signals cannot be handled by ATE.
The cable length connecting the DUT to the load board must be very short.
They require signal planes of their own.
Load board layout: you should never introduce stubs when laying high-speed signal traces.
The stubs act as antennas and create impedance mismatch and performance degradation.
They also generate or pick or noise.
You should not take off and route any signal from the trace to connect to components, pins or other traces perpendicularly.
Parts placement: power supply pin decoupling capacitors must be placed very close to the supply pin.
Use high quality ceramic surface mount capacitors for mounting.
Connect the DUT ground pins directly to the ground plane.
Do not run ground traces from a via to the DUT ground pin.
The same applies to ground connectors for bypass capacitors.
You must keep the ground connection as short as possible.
Power panes: analogue portions of the DUT should be connected to the analogue supply plane.
Digital parts should be connected to the digital supply plane.
You should not mix parts from two different planes.
Digital output pins generate fast transients of current.
the transients create noise that is attached to the power lane.
Such transient should be kept away from analogue power supply panes.
This helps to reduce noise injection into the analogue circuit.
These factors help in reducing crosstalk, noise and current leakage issues.
They also assist in improving the electrical, signal performance and overall board integrity.
What Are The Properties Of Ideal Load Board PCB?
Load board PCB
- Should not bring any distortion to the PCB
- It does not bring any noise to the PCB
- An ideal Load board PCB has an impedance of 50 ohm
- It can support all tests executed on the tester without any errors.
- It is flexible to support future testing
How Much Does Load Board PCB Cost?
The price of Load Board PCBs varies depending on various factors;
- Choice of material: the material used to make the PCB affects its cost.
- Thermal reliability: how well can the PCB perform under high thermal stresses?
Materials with a high thermal rating can withstand high thermal stresses.
The higher the rating of the material the higher the cost of the PCB.
- Temperature reliability
- Heat transfer
- Signal performance
- Mechanical properties
- The size of the PCB
- The number of layers on the PCB
- The type of surface finish used
- Unique custom specification
- The thickness of the PCB
How Does Probe Card PCB Compare To Load Card PCB?
Probe cards connect the tester and the pad on the die.
It is a physical interface of the load board.
Besides, it is attached to the load board through sockets or other interface circuits.
Also, it is used to test the water quality before the wafer is cut to reduce the packaging cost of bad products.
Load board PCB on the other hand is a mechanical and electrical circuit interface between the ATE and the DUT.
It is used in yield tests after packaging in the back-end manufacturing of semiconductors.
These tests help eliminate the poor functionality of integrated circuits and electronics due to defective ICs.
What Are The Benefits Of Importing Load Board PCB From China?
Load Board PCB manufacturers in China offer competitive prices compared to other regions.
China PCB manufacturers offer after-sale services to their clients.
China manufacturers offer a wide range of load board PCB designs.
Quality materials are used in the production of PCBs.
Manufacturers in China often arrange for shipping of your load board PCBs.
Most manufacturers in China conduct a Factory Acceptance Test (FAT).
They provide for customization of the load board PCB design to fit your need.
They offer a wide range of highly durable load board PCBs.
For all your load board PCB needs, Venture Electronics is here to help – contact us now.