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Venture manufactures rigid PCB (printed circuit board) using the latest materials and technology, FR4 PCB is the most widely produced in all China PCB fabricators. But besides FR4 PCB, there is also FR1 PCB (FR-1 PCB), FR2PCB (FR-2 PCB), we call these FR1 PCB and FR2 PCB are low cost PCBs.

FR1 PCB and FR2 PCB are usually 1 layer( single layer) PCBs, one of the reasons is because they are not good for through holes passing.

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Through our 2 hours rapid response services from our 24/7 sales and tech support team, and excellent after-sales service, we will be your best FR1 PCB and FR2 PCB manufacturer & supplier in China. At Venture we can answer any FR1 PCB and FR2 PCB questions that you may have, pls feel free to contact us anytime.

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FR1 PCB: The Ultimate Guide

1. What is FR1 PCB?


FR1 is a hard, flat material made of a thin layer of copper.

The layer of copper is placed on a non-conductive phenolic resin.

It is an essential material in the making of circuit boards. To effectively mount electronic components onto this board, you can either etch or mill away the thin copper layer.

This allows you to solder the components easily.

So, an FR 1 PCB is a printed circuit board made from FR 1 material.

2. What are the Benefits of Using Fr1 PCBs?

FR 1 Material


The copper tracks will enable you to include a large number of electronic components on the board.

This makes interconnections on FR1 Board less bulky. This means you’ll be able to create a big and complicated electronic circuit in a very compact form.

With small complicated electronic circuits, you can easily make smaller devices.

Cost Efficiency

FR1 circuit boards are less complicated compared to other circuits such as FR1. Instead of glass epoxy, FR1 PCBs use cardboards. This immensely reduces the cost of fabrication.

This also explains why FR1 PCBs are commonly used in household appliances. Reduced manufacturing costs translate into affordable market prices.

Mechanical Drilling

FR1 circuit boards can be mechanically drilled. This enables them to incorporate all the needed components.

This will help you ensure that you manufacture the intended appliances with the intended precision.

3. What are the Drawbacks of FR1 PCB?

Can only Work under Low Temperatures

FR1 circuits can only work under low temperatures.

This constrains their use of some devices and machinery that work under very high temperatures.

You will have to find an alternative circuit such as metalcore PCBs to manufacture a device to be used under high temperatures effectively.

Poor Moisture Resistance

FR1 PCBs are also poor in resisting moisture. This makes them unsuitable in the manufacture of devices to be used under humid conditions.

4. How does FR1 PCB compare to FR 4 PCB?

While FR1 has a cardboard laminate, FR4’s laminate is made of fiber epoxy laminate.

FR1 can only be used in the manufacture of the one-layered circuit. However, FR4 can be used in making a multi-layered PCB.

5. FR1 PCBs come in how many Layers?

You can only use FR1 PCBs to make a single-layered PCB. This is because FR1 is not a good through-hole mounting of components.

FR 1 Printed Circuit Board

6. What is the difference between FR1 PCB and FR2 PCBs?

For FR1 PCBs, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is 130℃. For FR2, the glass transition temperature  is 105℃.

However, the cost and use of these two are all the same. The difference only emerges on the effective cost of these two laminates.

7. Is FR 1 PCB the same as FR 3 PCB?

A comparison between FR1 and FR2 indicates that they bear almost similar properties. However, as FR1 uses cardboard as a laminate, FR3 uses an epoxy resin binder.

8. Where are FR 1 PCB Used?

Just like any other laminate, FR1 is used in the manufacture of circuit boards. You can mill and etch away the thin copper layer to leave traces.

It is upon these traces that you will solder electronic components depending on the intended device.

9. Is FR 1 PCB Thermal Resistant?

FR1 PCBs can sustain temperatures up to 130°C. High temperature PCB will not change. This is proof enough that FR1 PCBs can moderately resist thermal fluctuations.

10. What is the Dielectric Constant of FR 1 PCB?

At a specification of≤5.5, the typical value of dielectric constants in FR1 PCBs is 4.0~5.0. When the specifications are upgraded to ≤6.0, the dielectric constant of FR1 PCBs will be 4.5~5.5.

FR 1 Printed Circuit Board

11. Is there a Limitation on FR1 PCB Thickness?

Yes, there is a thickness limitation for FR1 PCBs. This is usually pegged at 1.6 mm (0.06 in.). This is because of the copper on either side of the FR1 laminate.

PCB Thickness

12. Which Features are Unique to FR 1 PCB?

FR1 is made of paper laminates as opposed to the more common fiberglass fabric used in FR4. Drilling such a laminate is safer and less dusty.

The paper laminate is covered with a thin layer of either copper or non-conductive phenolic resin.

Unlike other laminates, Fr1 is only used in the manufacture of single-layered PCBs. It is also very thin and can be equated to two or three credit cards in terms of thickness.

13. How does FR 1 PCB compare to Metal Core PCB?

FR 1 PCB vs Metal Core PCB

First, you should note that unlike FR1, which is made of paper laminate, MCPCBs laminates are made of thick metal.

For these reasons, FR1 PCBs are less conductive, while MCPCBs are conductive and effective in heat transfers.

This means you’ll not be able to use your FR1 PCB in making boards for applications where heat is the real issue.

The heat will overpower FR1 and result in damages hence reducing the life of the application.

For such an application, you will have to get a standard metal core PCB, which can carry away the heat more efficiently away from the hot spots.

14. What is the Recommended Copper Cladding for FR 1 PCB?

FR-1copper clad laminated sheet is usually made up of bleached wood pulp paper.

This paper is impregnated with flame-retardant phenolic-epoxy resin before being clad with electrolytic copper foil. The recommended copper cladding for FR1 PCB is 4x6in.

15. How do you Mount Components on FR1 PCB?

Through-hole PCB Assembly

Through-hole component mounting

The most commonly used component mounting method in FR1 PCBs is the through-hole method.

This is possible because circuit boards made of FR1 laminates are usually single layered.

In through-hole assembly, components are soldered onto the board through either wave or wave soldering.

These components usually go through the drilled holes. This gives the end products manufactured from these boards the desired strong bonding.

As such, they are able to withstand physical stresses.

The through-hole technique is also preferred in FR1 PCB assembly owing to its ability to maximize the available space.

Surface Mount Technology

This differs from the through-hole technique. Unlike in the previous technology where components are mounted through drilled holes, components here get mounted directly to the FR1 board.

Recently, this has become a popular approach in the mounting of components. Surface mount technology also enhances component density leading to efficiency in assembly.

In FR1 assemble, there a number of components that benefit from this method.

The most known components that are mounted using this technology are passive components. Passive components include large resistors and capacitors.

Other surface mount components include transistors, diodes, and resistors.

16. What is the Peel Strength of FR 1 PCB?

The peel strength of FR1 PCB at normal conditions after 5 seconds of heating is N/MM MIN: 1.2

17. What is the Flexural Strength of FR 1 PCB?

The flexural strength of FR1 PCB is usually 100mpa

18. Can FR 1 PCB support High Wattage Components?

FR1 cannot support high wattage components. This is because FR1 PCBs are not capable of withstanding high temperatures owing to their material composition.

This is also reflected in their incapability to sustain fluctuations in humidity.

19. What is the Insulation Resistance Capability of FR 1 PCB?

At normal conditions, the insulation resistance of FR1 PCB attains a minimum value of 1.0*1011. However, after boiling in water, it attains a minimum value of5.0*107.

20. Does FR 1 offer Moisture Resistance Capability?

Yes. After exposure to moisture, FR1 has a moisture capacity of 1.0*1010.

21. What is the Surface Resistivity for the Adhesive Side of FR 1 PCB?

On the copper etched fold side, surface resistivity is placed at a minimum of1.0*1011.

However, in normal conditions after exposure to steady heat or humidity, it attains a minimum level of 1.0*1010.

22. Are there Specific PCB Software Design for FR 1 Printed Circuit Board?

There is a number of software that one can use in designing FR1 PCBs. This software ensures that the designed FR1 PCB operates effectively.

Some of the commonly used FR1 PCB software includes KiCad software, which is arguably the most commonly used software.

Others include Firtzing, OrCAD, and CircuitMarker.

23. What are Quality Standards for FR 1 Printed Circuit Board?

When sourcing for FR1 PCBs, you should ensure that they adhere to quality standards. Some of these quality standards you should consider are:


In the European Economic Area, it is a mark of certification. It indicates that the product in the market has conformed to a number of standards.

These include standards pertaining to health, user-safety, and environmental protection.

When purchasing your FR1 PCB within the European market, ensure that you check out for this mark. FR1 PCBs manufactured elsewhere but meant to be sold in the European market should also bear this mark.


This refers to the prohibition of hazardous substances. This certification mode also came from the European Union.

It particularly prohibits the use of a number of hazardous substances that can be found in both electrical and electronic products.

This certification remains valid for five years. Some of the hazardous substances that are prohibited include lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium. Other substances include PBBs and PBDEs.

Check out for this certification when purchasing your FR1 PCB. It is an internationally adopted standardization mark. Manufacturers in China, too, use it to access the European market.


This is the Chinese mark of certification. It is compulsory for products that are imported and sold or used in China.

As such, it becomes easier to determine whether the FR1 PCB product you are buying is safe and has met these quality standards.


ISO 9000 is designed to help organizations in ensuring that the needs of the customers are met. These needs are met without compromising on the set regulations.

This can pass to be among the most popular certification marks.

This certification of the company and product is enough.

24. How does FR 1 PCB compare to CEM 1 PCB?

 FR 1 vs CEM 1 PCB

While the FR1 substrate is made using phenolic resin,  CEM-1 substrate is manufactured using woven glass fabric.

In terms of layers, FR1 is only be used in manufacturing a single-layered PCB. CEM 3, on the other hand, can be used in manufacturing multi-layered PCBs.

25. Are there Specific Design Considerations for FR 1 PCB?

When designing FR1 PCBs, there are a number of considerations that you will have to make. You have to be careful not to omit any of the set standards.

Omissions are likely to translate into flaws, which can result in fatalities.

There are at least six tips that will enable you to design your FR1 PCB as expected.


1. Design your Component Footprints appropriately to avoid Hitches during Soldering

It is important consider IPC-7351B/C compliant footprint with nominal density.

Do not ignore placing courtyards since they provide space for the assembly process and possible future rework.
When you have components that are 10mm long or more, you should leave an allowance of about 0.5mm. The allowance should be between courtyards that are adjacent to each other.
Use the rounded pads to release solder paste that may be on the stencil
When it comes to the library, there should be no mixed footprint rotations.

2. How Minor Changes in FR 1 Printed Circuit Board affect Panel Efficiency & Cost

You should know the suitable size of FR 1 PCB material. Different suppliers have different preferences.

For example, you can consider FR1 PCB standard panels such as:

406 by 508 mm (356 by 458 mm as working area)
305 by 457 mm (255 by 407 mm as working area)
When you have the initial design as 181 by147 mm, 3up on the first panel can offer an efficiency of 65%.

Also, for a 2 up second panel, you can achieve an efficiency of 51%.

But again, reducing design to about 175 by 147 mm, you can achieve an efficiency of 94%. This is 6up on the first panel.

3. Once you Get Panel Layout Right, the Assembly Process will be Simple and Straightforward

Depending on how the FR1 printed circuit board supplier steps data, you should allow them to optimize the panel layout. Take note that a bigger panel does not imply that it is the best. Remember, reworking and inspecting smaller panels is easier. When working with step patterns, you should have a minimum of 2mm between any two adjacent boards.

Again, a space of 6mm between any adjacent boards guarantee a more rigid panel.
The tab routing you will use should guarantee a smooth finish. Normally, inset tabs make breakout easy hence, there will be no need for sanding the edge of the board. Even though having 0.5mm copper on the edge of FR1 printed circuit board is ok, you should avoid using the 1mm on the edge.
All PCB components should be at least 2mm from the FR1 printed circuit board edge. This will prevent damaging the printed circuit board during a breakout. Tab routing is more precise than V-score breakouts. Therefore, try to avoid it.
Always keep all the 1 mm copper on top of a V-score.
All PCB components should be at least 2mm from the top of V-score. When it comes to the panel border, you should add three global fiducials

4. Good FR1 Printed Circuit Board Design Guarantees Problem-free Assembly

  • To avoid warping strive to balance copper distribution and layer count
  • There should be an even layer count for multilayer FR1PCB
  • You should specify the copper weight
  • On every corner, add three Fiducials
  • Ensure you have common orientation for the PCB components
  • Reduce the number of different components where possible
  • Consider surface mount technology for the PCB components where necessary
  • For small components, you should avoid silkscreen
  • Try to keep PCB components on the primary section of the FR1 printed circuit board
  • For double-sided design, the large PCB components should be on primary side of the printed circuit board
  • FR1 printed circuit board should have part number
  • When working with thicker boards, the ratio must not be greater than 8:1
  • Use local fiducials for components with very fine pitch
  • Define impedance control requirements and guidelines

5. Clear, detailed BOMs can Save Time and Money.

Whenever you’re are dealing with FR1 PCB design that are critical, it is important to work with specific manufacturers.

It is a perfect way to get shorter lead times and low cost alternatives.

During the process, you should clearly define the components.

In case of any variations, you must have clear specifications. This may include part number and other specifications.

6. You can Control Cost to Avoid Over-specification

You can control cost by considering the following:

  • Increasing number of layers may increase cost
  • Prices increases with reduction of feature sizes
  • You can minimize or optimizer drill sizes
  • Advanced features may increase cost of the PCB and a good example is blind vias
  • You should define IPC-A-600 / IPC-A-610 Class 2 or 3 – do not over-specify.

There’s a lot to consider, even within this limited list, but getting a design for production right will pay off with lower cost, faster lead-times, and a higher quality outcome.

If you have any questions about FR1 PCB design for manufacture, our engineers are always on hand to help.

26. What is the Glass Transition Temperature for FR 1 PCB?

For FR1, the glass transition temperature is 130oC.

27. Is FR 1 Suitable for High Voltage Applications?

FR1 is not suitable for high voltage applications. First, the laminate is made of cardboard making it susceptible to electric shocks.

This can easily result in flaws and subsequent destruction if FR1 is used in the manufacture of high voltage applications.

28. What are the Properties of Epoxy Used in FR 1 PCB

Phenolic resin is used in the manufacture of FR1 PCBs. This resin is impervious to moisture. However, unlike glass epoxy, it is unable to withstand fluctuating temperatures.

It also has poor dielectric properties. These factors explain why boards made of FR1 PCBs are only used in manufacturing consumer appliances as opposed to high voltage machinery.

29. How do you Manufacture FR 1 PCB?

FR1 Printed Circuit Boards form the integral part of most electronic devices.

When it comes to the uninitiated, FR 1 printed circuit board, will direct electrical signals through various electronics depending on the design requirements.

Normally, they use the copper pathways, which form network to direct electric current to the required surfaces of the FR 1 PCB.

Remember, each copper route, performs a specific role in the circuit system.

PCB Manufacturing Process Stages

Some of the main steps include:


Step 1: Design and Output

Immediately there is a go-ahead of FR1 PCB generation, and you carry out improvements. The commonly used tool for formatting is Gerber.

In the 1980s, it did come up with pretty young ones when used by and campaign. It is also known as 1X274X.

FR1 PCB company came up with Gerberas, the best output format.

Several FR1PCB design software seeks help from Gerber file generation steps. All of them encode important wording comprising tracking layers of copper.

Also included are apertures, component notations, and varieties. You have to scrutinize everything of FR1PCB here.

The software checks algorithms on your layout, making sure that it has no errors.

You have a task to examine the idea concerning tracking width, board edge spacing, trace, spacing, and size of the hole.

Having taken it through severe scrutiny, you take FR1PCB file to FR1PCB board houses to be produced.

You have to be sure that the design has at least all that is expected when production is done. The test is when it works the same as FR1PCB that has been fabricated.

Step 2: From File to Film

You start printing FR1PCB immediately you get the end result of FR1PCB files then you check the DFM.

You use a different printer known as plotter that molds the photo films of FR1PCBs generating circuit boards.

You then use the movie to picture the FR1PCBs. Though it exists as a laser printer, but not the type of laser jet.

To obtain a much detailed film, then you must use advanced technology for printing.

What comes at the end is a sheet inform of plastic comprising a photo negative of FR1 PCB in black ink.

The black ink stands for parts of conductive copper of FR1PCB. That is only for layers that appear inside. The rest that is clear represents areas of materials that do not conduct.

Layers that appear outside take the vice versa of the pattern. You then develop the film that is safely kept not to be contaminated.

Every layer of FR1PCB, together with the solder mask, gets its own clear and black film sheet. Summing it all, a coat with two FR1PCB requires four sheets, duo for the layers, as well as a solder mask.

Also to note is that all films must get along well with each other. When you use them together, they get of FR1PCB alignment.

In order to have the best alignment of films, then you need to punch registration holes in all. Achieving preciseness of the holes requires you to adjust the table that films occur.

As the small calibrations of the table get to the lowest match, you punch the hole. It will, therefore, get along with the registration pins during the next stage of imaging.

Step 3: Printing the Inner layers: Where Will the Copper Go?

Making films in the past steps focuses on portraying an image of a copper path. It is now time to produce the figure on film to appear on copper foil.

The stage prepares to build real FR1PCB. The purest form of FR1PCB has a laminate board that its primary material is epoxy resin, as well as glass fiber known as substrate.

The laminate acts as the best platform for having the copper that forms the FR1PCB. Materials for the substrate make it sturdy and resistant to dust of the onset point for FR1PCB.

You then bond copper on all sides. This procedure includes whittling away copper to show the design from films.

In the making of FR1PCB, it is essential that you observe cleanliness. Copper sided laminate is made clean and lets through an environment that is not contaminated.

At this point, it is essential that dirt substances do not get on the laminate. Such particles lead to a short circuit or making it be open.

After that, the clean panel gets a piling of film that is known as photoresist. You can then fix the films on the laminate board using pins.

It is essential now to expose the film together with the board to UV light. It should pass into clear parts of the film, by making photo resistant below it hard.

The role of black ink from plotters is to hinder light from getting to areas not meant to make hard.

You are to remove them after the process.

With the board now ready, it is subjected to alkaline that washes away any trait of photoresist not hardened.

The last washing with pressure does the removal of everything left. You then allow the board to dry.

The output has the property of resist lining copper that should stay in the last form. You have to ascertain the boards making sure that nothing terrible occurs at this point.

The presence of resist here shows the copper that will come out in the final FR1PCB.

This is only for boards that have two layers and above with simple one going straight to drilling. Complex layer boards have to go through more stages.

Step 4: Removing the Unwanted Copper

Having removed the photoresist as well as the one that is made hard on the copper we want to retain, the board gets to the next stage.

This is the removal of unnecessary copper. As done earlier with alkaline, this time, a new powerful chemical solution does away with copper in excess.

What remains afterward is good copper under protection on the lower part of photoresist already hardened.

All copper boards are not made the same. The heavy boards are to be supplied with the right size of copper solvents and different lengths of exposure.

To be noted is copper boards that are substantial need extra attention to be spaced. Many standard FR1PCBs rely on the same given requirements.

Unwanted copper is taken away by the solution; therefore, washing is done to the hard resist guarding copper of choice.

Completing this work is another solution. The board shines only with copper components important for FR1PCB.

Step 5: Aligning Layers and Inspection with Optical Systems

Having cleaned all layers and made them ready, you align the punches on the right way. Registration holes do the alignment of layers inside to those outside.

You put the layers in the optical punch machine. It facilitates the punching of registration holes in the right way.

It is difficult to make any corrections on mistakes that happen in the layers inside. This occurs especially when the layers are put together.

Confirming that there are no defects, there is a machine that does this job of automatic inspection.

The original design from Gerber that is received by company owners does the work of the model. Machines do scanning of layers with a laser sensor.

During this process, they compare the image in the digital format with the original Gerber file. Of course, all these are electronic processes.

In case of any variations detected by the machine, the contrast gets portrayed on the screen for you to do an assessment. If it passes the test, it gets to the last stage of producing FR1PCB.

Step 6: Layer-up and Bond

It is here that the circuit board is given shape. This is where assembling of all layers is done.

Being ready, you need to bring them together, ensuring that layers from outside connect in the substrate.

The whole procedure takes place in two steps. That is layer up and bonding.

The outside layers materials contain fiberglass sheets that have been sandwiched in epoxy resin. The upper and lower parts of the original substrate are covered with a tiny copper foil. The small copper foil has copper trace etching. After all this process, you now have to put them to be one thing.

Putting them together takes place on a stolen table that has been set with clamps. The layers are then placed on the table well positioned on the pins.

You must ensure that the positioning takes place well to avoid any disorder when aligning.

PCB Structure

During the alignment process, you start by putting a prepreg layer on top of the basin used for alignment.

Before placement of the copper sheet, you first fix the substrate layer on top of the prepped. You then add more prepreg sheets over the copper layer.

The last addition is of aluminum foil and copper press plate to end the piling process. At this juncture, everything is ready for pressing.

The process takes place, running automatically by bonding press computer.

Normally, this computer speeds up the healing process of pilling. It does this by managing it entirely, from the application of pressure to cooling.

Molding all the layers together brings them to one thing of FR1PCB. You, therefore, the go-ahead to remove the sandwich, which is the FR1PCB.

Removal of the end product is as simple as it entails removing pins and disbanding the plate put over the lunch.

You will glance at its greatness that is visible from the aluminum shell plates made of it. Forming part of the outer layers of FR1PCB is the copper foil used in the process of making it.

Step 7: Drill

Drilling PCB

At this stage, what happens is the drilling of holes on the stack board. Other things will follow later, for example, copper linking through holes and the aspect of leading.

Its reliability is on the accuracy of drill holes and being precise. The drilling size of the holes is compared to the size of a hair’s width.

The diameter size is estimated to the tune of an average of 100 microns. It indicates how tiny the holes are.

Getting the location of the targeted drill requires you to use an x-ray locator. It is able to get the precisely targeted drill spots.

After this process, holes are drilled properly to secure pilling for several more drills to be undertaken.

Before drilling takes place, you should make sure that there is a substance placed below the piles. This should be precisely around where the perforation is to take home to avoid untidy holes.

Every minimal advancement in drills is computer controlled. The reliance on equipment in drilling here gives more accurate end product.

The computer-controlled machine works by using a drilling file from the first make to get the right spots to drill.

A high turning 150000 rpm air-driven spindles drills are used for the process. It happens so quick that you can never imagine.

FR1PCB of average size has more than one hundred bore intact points. When you conduct drilling, then you ensure that each of a hundred has its own time with the drill.

This makes the entire process to take some time. The same holes drilled will, in turn, be used for the mechanical installation of FR1PCB.

Fixing, which marks the end of the process, is done after plating.

Step 8: Plating Process Followed by Copper Deposition

The next stage after drilling is the plating process. It brings together various layers using chemical deposition.

When it been subjected to proper cleaning, it goes through several chemical washing.

When washing is taking place, thin layers of chemicals are being placed by a chemical depositing machine. One micron-thick of copper is deposited on top of the panel.

Before this stage, the interior surface may have exposed fiberglass material of the inner panel.

Covering the walls of the holes is well done by copper baths. At this point again, the whole board gets a new layer of copper.

Important to note is that the new holes are not exposed. This entire procedure is conducted by the computer, from dipping, removal, and procession.

Step 9: Outer Layer Imaging

Just like you applied photoresist in the third step, so you do it again in this step.

The exception is that you image the layers that appear outside of the panel, making it look like FR1PCB.

The process kicks off with the layers done in a sterile room to avoid any contamination on the outside of the sheet.

After that, you make an application of the photoresist layer to the panel. In the yellow room, here, the prepped board passes by as UV lights do not affect photoresist.

This is because yellow light waves don’t have UV levels to the capacity that leads to affection.

The use of black ink transparencies is managed by pins not to allow deviations from the panel.

Group, together with a stencil, a generator gives them high UV light that makes photo resist harder.

The process continues with panel passing into a machine to take away the resist that is not hardened. These are taken care of by black ink opacity.

This procedure is the other way round to that of layers inside.

Lastly, plates existing outside go through scrutiny to make sure that all photoresist that is not needed was taken away in the stage that came earlier.

Step 10: Plating

The process now gets to the plating room. The electroplating of the panel using a thin layer of copper is done, as happened in stage 8.

Panels whose layers were exposed at the outer layer photoresist stage now gets the copper electroplating.

The panels also get a plating of tins that initiates getting away from copper that remained on the board.

This happens as a result of the first initial copper plating baths.

The importance of the tin is to protect the part of the panel coated with copper at the etching stage. The stage helps in removing copper foil not needed in the panel.

Step 11: Final Etching

At this stage, the tin-coated in the previous stage now helps by giving protection to the wanted copper.

The copper that is not needed is removed here using various chemicals as tin guards copper that is valuable.

Step 12: Solder Mask Application

You ensure that cleaning of the panels is done and then cover them with epoxy solder mask ink.

This is before the application of the solder mask done on all sides of the boards. The UV light is passed through, and later on, you pass board in an oven curing the solder marks.

Step 13: Surface Finish

For you to increase more solderability to your FR1PCB, plating of gold or silver is done.

On this stage, FR1PCBs get hot air- leveled pads, which lead to uniformity in pads.

Based on what customers’ desire, many types of surface finish can always be realized in FR1PCB.

Step 14: Silkscreen

Here forms of ink jet writing are performed to give important information about the FR1PCB. After this, it then gets to the last stage of coating and curing.

Step 15: Electrical Test

You can use different techniques to test the FR 1 printed circuit board.

One of the most popular tests is the flying probe testing. During the flying probe test, you will move probes to ensure every section of the PCB meets the specified performance requirement.

PCB Testing Machine

Step 16: Profiling and V-Scoring

This is the last stage of the entire process. It involves cutting various boards from the main panel. There are two methods used in this case.

They include a router or a v-groove. They cut along the edge and diagonal, respectively. Important is that they allow the boards to be extracted easily from the panel.

30. What is FR 1 PCB Assembly?

FR1 PCB Assembly

When assembling PCBs, there are a number of steps that you will have to take into account.

These sequences will enable the finished product to function as desired. For you to achieve this milestone, you will have to use screen templates to regulate heat.

You equally need to ensure that you use the right technology, depending on the types of components to be used.

Ensure that you align all the parts and pieces in the designated points. In essence, it should reflect on the board’s design.

If you fail to consider the set parameters, then there is the possibility of failure on the functions of the board.

For you to adequately understand the FR1 PCB assembly process, it is imperative that you understand these terms:


This is the foundation material used in the printed circuit board. For the case of FR1, the substrate is a non-conductive phenolic resin.


Every side of a PCB contains a thin layer of copper. This thin layer of copper is essential for conduction. For FR1 PCBs, this is found on one side of the board, which is the active side.

Solder mask

This refers to the surface layer of the board. It is found in every FR1 PCB. It acts as an insulator between the copper layer and other materials.

This prevents short-circuiting when the board is in use by providing insulation. The solder mask is also essential in ensuring that all the components are put in their rightful positions.


This is the final touch for the FR1 PCB board. It is transparent and has an inscription of letters and numbers adjacent to every component on the board.

This is essential in guiding you in the manufacturing process since you will be able to identify the required components.

Manual soldering

In this process, you will be inserting individual components into their designated holes.

This is done in a chain, meaning that the next technician will insert a different part. This cycle goes on until every component is inserted.

Wave soldering

This process entails soldering all the components in their rightful spots. This process is aided by a conveyor that runs into a heating chamber.

In the chamber, there are a number of underpins that are fixed into place into position during this process.

There are two main methods of assembly used in the FR1 assembly. The most preferred is surface mount technology as opposed to through-hole assembly.

i.Surface Mount Technology

Surface mount technology

The main reason for using SMT in FR1 PCBs is its ability to incorporate more components compared to the through-hole method.

FR1 PCBs are usually single-sided circuits. This means that they have to incorporate as many components as possible.

Through SMT, complex machines can be manufactured from these boards.

When using this method, PTH components are eliminated and replaced with comparatively smaller surface pads.

On these surface-mount pads, vias are drilled. These vias are essential in disseminating heat generated when the board is in operation.

The space created around the SMT components is enough to accommodate more components.

These additional components equally have smaller footprint sizes, further creating an opportunity to create complex products.

It is also possible to use SMT to include FR1 PCB components on either side of the board.

However, there are many considerations that must be put in place when designing surface mount technology for FR1 PCBs.

Some of the considerations to put into place include surface finishes and mechanical characteristics.

When appropriate measures are not put in place, then assembling FR1 PCB on automated equipment can be a nightmare.

Surface Mount Design Considerations in FR1 PCBs

The material used in the manufacture of FR1 PCBs is essential and is, at times, interactive. For FR1 PCB SMT work, you should avoid using leaded solder.

This is because it usually puddles on one end of the pad and cools into a non-planer state.

You should remember to keep the components flat. This is the only way through which you will evade positioning problems.

Look out for the planar finishes such as ENIG or Immersion Tin.

Another vital factor that is worth considering is that the laminate should be precisely specked.

When soldering SMT components on FR1 boards, you will have to ensure that you use the appropriate temperatures.

These temperatures should be higher compared to that used when mounting through-hole components.

ii. Through-Hole Assembly

Through-hole mounting technology

There are a few Steps involved in Assembling Through-hole Components in FR1 PCBs:

First, note that you will have to manually assemble the components into their designated spots on the FR1 board.

You should do this in accordance with the design specifications of your FR1 PCB board. Ensure that all the components are in the exact position.

This will be essential in the proper functioning of the board.

You will then have to examine the board. This will help you in ensuring that all the components have been put in the exact place.

If you realize that some of the components have been misplaced, you can correct them. After inspection, you should proceed to solder the components into their rightful place.

You will achieve this through wave soldering. Alternatively, you can solder the components manually.

This is done using selective solder, which is similar to wave soldering. This gives you the ability to solder the components selectively.

As such, you can easily avoid the areas you don’t intend to solder. Comparatively, through-hole boards usually establish stronger bonds between the board and the components.

However, the process is a little cumbersome owing to the fact that you will drill holes for anchoring components.

31. How do you Select Materials and Components for FR 1 PCB?

Getting the right materials is a prerequisite for the effective functioning of your FR1 PCB board. Not even manufacturers have the ability to produce all the materials required.

This is an indication that you will have to select the appropriate materials needed for your FR1 PCB.

 FR 1 PCB Material

However, there is a need to be equipped with the right knowledge when doing this kind of selection.

The first step in selecting your materials is by first coming up with a list of what you will need.

This list is normally termed as the Bill of Material (BOM). Apart from detailing the materials you need, it will also detail the right quantities required.


Further, it will help you plan where to get these materials from. Further, BOM will help you prioritize the required materials and where you can find them.

As such, you will be able to source materials effectively owing to the detailed reference point. It is also a strategy that will enable you to mitigate possible omissions.

From this point, you can proceed to contact authorized dealers for the materials.

When starting your engagement with a supplier, there are a number of strategies that you will have to consider.

First, the manufacturer must meet all the required standards. This will be an assurance of the safety of the final product for use.

You should also consider the experience of the manufacturer. A manufacturer with long service in the industry is most likely more experienced.

There is also the likelihood that such a manufacturer is also well kitted to make standard materials.

Further, you should consider the set prices and compare them across outlets offering the same products and services.

You should also consider whether there are warranties on the products. Consider whether the manufacturer provides shipping services for the materials.

This prevents mishandling and resultant breakages or flaws in the completed board.

32. What are FR 1 PCB Specifications?

There are several specifications that are unique to FR1 PCBs.

In terms of permittivity, FR1 has the following characteristics: First, when immersed in water, it attains a maximum permeability value of 5.8.

On the other hand, when it is normal, permeability is at a maximum value of 5.3. Resistance for copper foil used in FR1 PCBs is 35UM.

When exposed to steady heat and humidity treatment volume resistivity value is MIN:5.0*10 3511.

33. What is Single Side FR 1 PCB?

Single-sided FR1 PCs have one layer with a conductive material.

All FR1 PCBs are usually single layered. This attribute makes them easy to design and manufacture.

However, it plays against their capabilities. As such, they are unable to sustain high wattage applications and devices.

Single side FR 1 PCB

34. Is FR 1 PCB Flame Retardant?

FR1 PCBs are flame retardant. This protects against the occurrence of fire outbreaks due to system failure when using applications made from these boards.

Fire retard ability is achieved by conforming to UL94 VO flammability standards.

35. Which Properties Affect PCB Material Performance?

When choosing FR1 PCB materials, you need to consider several factors.

Conformance to these principles helps in warding off system flaws and accidents that can accrue from them.

The first factor you should consider is thermal conductivity.

i.Thermal Conductivity

Thermal conductivity is the ability of a PCB material to conduct heat.

This is essential in determining the ability of a material to transfer heat. It is usually measured in Watts per Meter.

The most preferred range of thermal conductivity is between 0.3 W/Mk to 6W/Mk. This explains why copper is used in the manufacture of FR1 circuits.

This enhances the capabilities of the dielectric layer to transfer heat at a higher rate.

ii. Decomposition Temperature (Td)

This is the second factor that you should assess when selecting PCB materials. Usually, different PCB materials decompose when exposed to certain temperatures.

Decomposition temperature refers to the temperatures at which the substrate decomposes.

When this kind of decomposition occurs, the substrate’s initial state cannot be restored even if it is exposed to cooler temperatures.

This implies that you will need to use a material that can sustain the temperatures your device is going to work under.

For the case of FR1, the substrate can only sustain temperatures up to 130 degrees Celsius.

iii. Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)

When you expose your PCB material to a certain temperature, there is the likelihood that it will soften. When you cool the substrate, it will be able to regain its initial state.

iv. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion refers to the expansion levels of a PCB. This is dependent on temperature fluctuations that the substrate is exposed to.

This is an important consideration that should be made when choosing materials to be used in fabricating FR1 PCBs.

36. Is CEM 3 PCB the same as FR 4 PCB?

No. CEM 3 and FR4 PCBs are different.

In FR4 PCBs, the glass laminate is woven. This is not the same case with CME 3, where the glass is non-woven.


37. What is the Rigid FR 1 Printed Circuit Board?

Rigid FR1 PCB boards are inflexible boards made from stiff materials. Once you manufacture such an FR1 board, you will not be able to modify or fold it into a different shape.

Of all the FR1 boards, rigid ones are the most common ones. This is evident in most consumer appliances that we have at home today.

38. Can you Solder Mask FR 1 Printed Circuit Board?

Yes. You can solder mask FR1 PCB. Usually, a thin layer is used to cover the copper traces on the FR1 board.

This helps in enhancing the reliability of the board and the high performance of the resulting applications. The most commonly used solder mask material.

This preference is anchored on the fact that it can resist humidity; it is a good insulator and is solder resistant. It can also withstand fluctuating temperatures.

39. Which FR Material is Suitable for Multilayer PCB?

Single layer vs multi layer pcb

The most suitable FR material for multilayer PCB is FR4.

This explains its common use as a PCB material. It can sustain a maximum of eight layers. FR4 also has an ambient temperature pegged between 120-130 degrees Celsius.

After FR4, the second most used base material is FR1, followed by FR2.

However, both FR1 and FR2 can only be used in single-layered PCBs. This is because they are not recommended for plating through-hole. FR3 is not also recommended when one is building a multi-layered PCB.

This leaves you with FR4 as the best selection.

You can make whatever PCB you would want from FR4. It can be used in making a single-layered to the making of multi-layered PCBs.

40. Why is UL94V-0 Critical in FR 1 PCB Design?

UL94v – 0 refers to fire standards set to ensure safety for users of various PCB products universally.

Specifically, it helps in determining the flammability of a specific PCB material and its burn time.

41. Why Trust Venture FR 1 Printed Circuit Board?

At Venture, we offer the leading technology in the manufacture of Fr1 PCBs.

This is backed up with the long-standing experience that has seen us acquire some of the best manufacturing tools.

Our team also boasts of long term experience, making it possible for us to design and manufacture effective FR1 PCBs.

In our production systems, we endure meeting all the standards regulating FR1 manufacture. This has, over the years, helped in enhancing the performance of our FR1 boards.

On FR1 PCB components, we will ensure that we stick to your bill of materials.

This will guide us on what your intended FR1 PCB will look like. Our turnaround time is usually competitive, depending on how urgently you want your finished board.

We will also advise you on what should be included in the BOM.

Our advice will be dependent on what application you intend to make out of your FR1 board.

You can trust us with your deliveries when the assembly is done. Our shipping services take into account the sensitivity of FR1 PCBs.

You can get a quote for all these services.

A favorable discount is usually a guarantee. We look forward to helping you manufacture and assemble the best FR1 PCB ever.

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