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Electronics used for industrial applications need to be very stable, durable to fit in extremely harsh conditions, at the same time maintaining long service lives.
Industrial PCB designs and Industrial printed circuit board manufacturing also need to follow strict industrial SIL and IEC standards and create unique design features and form factors for any industrial settings. Equipment Manufacturers in industrial/automation markets now face unique challenges in today’s world: with increasing labor cost, precision, and efficiency requirement. Industrial products need ever-more complex electrical assemblies to be produced with industrial PCB, which require industrial-grade reliability, precision, and flexibility.
Industrial PCBs might be in service for several years or even decades. Some of the components you designed it might be obsolete when the next time you need to revise your industrial PCB, it will cost you extra time trying to find suitable alternatives/replacements, not even to mention the time you’ll spend updating your service and component documentation over the product’s lifespan. Our industrial PCB products are used in a broad range of applications such as:
- Power supply units
- Electronic switch gears
- Industrial drives & inverters
- Electronic test & measurement equipment
- Energy control systems
- Industrial smart meters
- Electronic smart labels
- Industrial Lighting systems
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Industrial PCB – Your Ultimate Guide
Let me tell you the truth about a good industrial PCB.
Like highly skilled workers, a good piece of industrial equipment is an essential part of any business or factory to flourish.
And if using electronically operated industrial equipment, having the right PCBs is a must to ensure precision and control during operations.
With this in mind, let’s learn all there is about industrial PCBs.
Hopefully, by the end of this read, you’ll be able to identify and buy the right PCB for your industry application.
- What is Industrial PCB?
- Composition of Industrial PCBs
- Types of Industrial PCBs
- Best Materials for Industrial PCB
- Industrial PCB Components Sourcing
- Industrial PCB Manufacturing Process
- Features of a High Quality Industrial PCB
- Industrial PCB Applications
- FAQs on Industrial PCBs
What is Industrial PCB?
Firstly, a PCB (printed circuit board) is an internal component that mechanically supports electronic parts.
An industrial PCB, in this case, is a PCB built for and used in industrial applications.
It is a component made of several layers of insulating material combined with electrical conductors.
Commonly, the insulator is made of various types of material which can often be based on fibreglass, plastic or ceramics.
When a PCB is created, the manufacturing process will etch off various sections of the PCB to leave one completed printed circuit board that can be used with an electronic component.
The normal standard for a PCB these days regardless of the different types of materials is PIC2221A.
It doesn’t matter if a PCB is double sided, single sided or has lots of different layers; the standard is still used in the manufacturing process.
For a special type of technology, the designer can choose appropriate sectional standards from the IPC2220 series.
If the designer is using power conversion devices, then the additional parameters are recommended by the IPC9592.
Industrial PLC System
Understand that PCBs are the backbone of every electronically operated equipment.
A lot of modern technology could not exist without a PCB in place.
In other words, industrial PCBs are integral to the smooth, productive operation of any industrial electronic equipment.
And, they come in a variety of types which we’re going to learn about shortly.
But before then, allow me to tell you a bit about the composition of industrial PCBs.
Composition of Industrial PCBs
An industrial PCB resembles a layered cake.
It constitutes alternating layers of different materials that are laminated together with heat and adhesive.
A single object that we refer to as a printed circuit board.
To understand this, let’s start from the middle
Also known as the substrate, the base material of PCB is usually made of strong fibreglass material.
FR4 is the most common fibreglass material used for PCB substrates.
The base, note, has to be solid as it is the core of the board.
Fibreglass, in this case, gives PCBs their rigidity and thickness.
But, you can find flexible PCBs made of flexible plastic bases.
Now, there is a varying thickness of PCBs. The most common thickness is 1.6mm, but you’ll find some with a 0.8mm thickness and beyond.
As you’ve noted, most PCBs feature fibreglass bases. But plastic and other materials such as epoxy, and phenolic can also be used.
For industrial PCBs nonetheless, strong and durable base is needed. In this case, fibreglass and metal are the most ideal.
We will talk about PCB materials later in this guide.
From the base, the next layer is the copper layer which is laminated to the base with heat and adhesive.
Commonly, double and multi-layered PCBs apply copper on both sides of the base.
Some PCBs feature only one layer of copper on one side of the base. Note however that such is not common in industrial PCBs.
Like the base, the copper layer thickness varies and is specified by weight, in ounces per square foot.
Most PCBs have 1 ounce of copper per square foot.
Industrial PCBs handle very high power. Thus, they use 2-3 ounce copper.
Each ounce, in this case, is equivalent to about 35µm thickness of copper.
This is the topmost layer, in double and multilayer PCBs, it also the bottommost layer.
Usually lined at the top of the copper foil, this layer gives the PCB its green colour.
By design, the layer is overlaid onto the copper layer to insulate the copper traces from accidental contact with other metals, solder or conductive bits.
The layer generally helps to ensure soldering to the right places as well as preventing solder jumps.
The silkscreen layer is applied on top of the solder mask.
This layer adds letter, numbers and symbols to the PCB. These allow for easy assembly and indicators for a better understanding of the board.
Silk screen PCB
Often, silkscreen labels are used to indicate the function of each pin or LED.
Note that commonly, silkscreen is white, but you can have it in any single colour be it black, red, grey etc.
So these are the outline layers of a typical printed circuit board.
Now that you know them let’s see what types of industrial PCBs there are on the market.
Types of Industrial PCBs
It is important to note that, often, the design and manufacturing of a PCB is as critical as the design of the main circuit itself.
Manufacturers are increasingly making use of compact, flexible PCBs to assemble and organize electronic circuits.
A PCB could comprise one or more insulating boards on which copper layers and conductive signal traces have either been etched or printed.
Depending on the complexity of the circuit, PCB manufacturing could typically involve anywhere from a single layer PCB to eight (or more) layers.
That said, there is a variety of industrial PCBs on the market designed to match the varying needs of a range of industries and industrial equipment.
The types are largely based on the number of layers and the rigidity of the PCBs.
Types of Industrial PCBs based on layers
In this category, there are three main types.
·Single layer PCB
Single layer PCB
Single layered PCBs are the most typical circuit boards in the market. They are built with a single layer or base material.
The single layer is coated with a conductive material like copper.
They may also have a silk screen coat or a protective solder mask on top of the copper layer.
A significant advantage of this type of PCB is the low production cost.
It is, however, suitable for use in applications that require very basic circuitry which is not so common in industrial applications.
·Double layer PCB
Double layer PCB
Double layered PCBs hold circuits that are slightly more intricate than single layered ones.
They are much like single layered boards only that these have the conductive material on both sides.
The good thing with double sided boards is that they can hold slightly complex circuits.
This type of board also increases operational flexibility and is a practical option for building more dense circuit designs.
Note that although advantageous in many aspects, double-sided boards aren’t a viable option for the most complex circuits.
They are unable to work with technology that reduces electromagnetic interference.
This is why they are commonly used in amplifiers, power monitoring systems and testing equipment.
For complex circuit systems, multilayer PCBs are most suited.
These are boards that feature multiple sheets of substrate with insulating layers in between each sheet.
Depending on the complexity of a circuit, such PCBs can range from 2 to 4 to 8 layers.
Highly sophisticated circuits feature boards with up to 42 layers.
Types of industrial PCBs based on rigidity
You should understand that different industrial applications need different types of PCBs.
And, apart from layers, industrial PCBs can also be differentiated by their rigidity.
The three types of PCBs based on rigidity are;
These are boards built with rigid, non-flexible material for its layers.
The material makes the board unable to bend beyond a specific limit as it will crack or break.
Rigid PCBs are typically compact and can handle complex circuit designs.
Plus, the signal paths in rigid PCBs are easy to organise, and the ability to maintain and repair is quite straightforward.
This is another common type of industrial PCB on the market.
The circuits in flexible PCBs are assembled on a thin, flexible insulating material.
Flexible PCBs note is very versatile.
They are not just designed with a flexible layer but are also available in single, double or multilayer board.
These type of circuits are a great option when it is necessary to save space and weight when building a particular device.
Also, they are appreciated for high ductility and low mass. However, the flexible nature of the board can make it more difficult to use.
Rigid flex PCB
These are a combination of rigid and flexible PCBs.
The circuits are mostly used in applications where a very dense circuit is required such as in aerospace and military.
Rigid-flex PCBs help save a significant amount of space, resulting in electronic products that weigh much less.
As earlier mentioned, printed circuit boards are manufactured in various types to suit the varying needs of the industry.
For this reason, you have to choose a PCB that is utmost suitable for your industrial equipment.
If you’re not sure which type is best suited for your application, consult with your supplier or PCB expert for advice and recommendations.
Best Materials for Industrial PCB
Before choosing a PCB for your industrial application, it is essential that you consider what the best materials for it are.
After all, the resilience and strength of the chosen material will have a direct impact on the PCB’s capability to support its intended application.
Ideally, industrial PCBs should feature a strong foundation for which the PCB traces and components can be etched.
As mentioned severally in this guide, there are a variety of possibilities when it comes to PCB materials.
However, the most popular ones for industrial PCBs tend to be fibreglass, metal and Teflon.
This is the most commonly used material in industrial PCB fabrication.
It is a glass reinforced epoxy laminate sheet that is flame retardant and water resistant.
FR-4 offers very high tensile strength.
FR-4 note is normally used as the substrate in PCB fabrications. It helps provide a very solid base for PCBs.
Its thickness can vary depending on the specific application.
Teflon, otherwise known as PTFE, is a kind of plastic material that doesn’t provide any resistance.
Thus, it is used for high speed, high-frequency applications.
The extreme flexibility of Teflon material makes it invaluable in applications with tight tolerances.
It is also extremely lightweight, allowing it to be used across various industries.
Flame resistance is also one of its attributes alongside high physical strength, temperature stability and versatility.
All traditional metals such as copper, aluminium, and iron are used in the making of Industrial PCBs.
These materials allow the use of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) for the integration of components.
Surface mount technology
They also provide mechanical durability. Thus, the product life of metal base industrial PCBs is much longer.
Note that since quality is a priority in industrial applications, manufacturers use generally tend to use aluminium-backed PCB Circuit Boards.
Ceramic although an excellent material for industrial printed circuit boards, is quite expensive.
Industrial PCBs made of ceramic are not susceptible to water and can withstand extremely high and low temperature.
They are however costly to have several design limitations.
Well, these are the best materials for industrial PCB.
There could be other PCB materials as well …
Just note that different materials are used in the fabrication of PCBs. And, that all of them offer a variety of advantages and disadvantages.
During manufacturing, materials are chosen according to the application, the result needed and environmental factors.
Some materials are also chosen based on constraint that the PCB might face during application.
As such, you should choose the material of the industrial PCB depending on the results that are expected.
There are three key elements of consideration when choosing Industrial PCB materials.
Regardless of a PCB’s intended use, its material must meet certain basic requirements.
For instance, the board must have a good time to delamination. This is so that its integrity isn’t easily compromised by physical stress.
Excellent quality PCBs also allows you to perform hardware updates without compromising the components of the original PCB board.
For cost, understand that there is a great variance depending on several factors.
For instance, Gold tabs tend to be more expensive than solder tabs.
Also, when considering blind vs. buried vias, the latter is cheaper.
The same applies to line/width spacing. Spacing above 6mm incurs higher costs than when using a below 6mm spacing.
·Power and heat
The thermal capacity of industrial PCB material are crucial in determining a PCB’s usefulness and reliability.
As such, always ensure that you check the thermal capacity of your chosen PCB material.
Also, you need to know the rate at which the material turns wattage power into temperature.
Industrial PCB Components Sourcing
Industrial PCB components
When it comes to industrial PCB components sourcing, there are two ways to go about it.
You can have your manufacturer source the components or, you can do it yourself.
Letting the manufacturer do the sourcing is easier, faster and can help you save on costs.
It, however, is accompanied by risks such as the manufacturer sourcing counterfeit components without your knowledge.
You see, counterfeit components are pretty common nowadays.
The worst part?
They are very difficult to detect.
So if your application demands tight performance or security specifications, I’d advise that you source your own components.
Handling your own sourcing is hard. It involves extra work and can be pretty challenging.
But then, it allows you total control over your sources and is much better than having to deal with a batch of bad boards.
Either way, one thing is certain; industrial PCB components sourcing requires a proper and detailed BOM.
With this, you’re guaranteed of getting the exact product that you want and at a cost that is reasonable and affordable.
What is a BOM and why is it important?
A BOM (bill of materials) is a list that tells you the parts that you need to make something.
It is more like a recipe that tells you the ingredients that you need to make a cake, dish or beverage.
In this case, a BOM tells you what parts you need to make an industrial PCB component.
Your manufacturer will rely on this list to build your PCB.
From the list, they will know what materials, parts, assemblies and subassemblies they need to make the PCB exactly like you want.
So it is essential that your BOM is comprehensive and accurate.
How do you create a Bill of Materials?
Creating a BOM is tedious and very time-consuming. Nonetheless, it is essential if you want to get a quality industrial PCB that matches your requirements.
A simple way of creating a BOM is first to determine the following crucial aspects;
·The design of your PCB
You can’t start creating a BOM without a design layout. It is the design of your product that will tell you what parts and components you’ll need for the actual PCB.
In other words, you need to know what you’re building to be able to identify what you’ll need to build it.
·Managing the BOM
Unfortunately, you are not the only person that’ll handle the Bill of Materials once it is ready. In this case, you have to decide how to manage it before creating it.
Normally, the fewer people handle the list the better.
This reduces the chances of iterations and ensures that the latest version of the BOM is what is used.
·Who will need the BOM?
You need to know who might use this list before creating it.
Possibly, it may have to go through procurement, design, engineering and production departments etc.
Thus, you need to include all the right information for all the right departments when creating the BOM.
While you don’t need the specifics, knowing what categories of information to include in your BOM is critical at this point.
Basic information like parts name and quantity are a must know at this stage — specifics like which suppliers to buy parts from and such as things can come later.
The ultimate goal is to ensure that the document is as detailed and accurate as possible by the time you’re sending it out.
Decide on basic organization strategies before you begin creating your BOM.
You need to know how you’ll organize the document like how many you’ll group items etc.
Creating the document format ahead of time will allow you to plug in data more efficiently once you start writing the BOM.
·Software to use
It is important to know what program you’ll use to create your file.
Typically, excel is used as the list is essentially a spreadsheet. However, if you’re working on a more complex project, you may need to opt for a more advanced and BOM specific program.
Once you are set with all these, you can now begin creating the list following these steps.
- Open your program whether it is excel or any BOM program
- Create a new file and name it
- Organize the document by establishing user permissions, setting up track changes and creating levels etc.
- Fill in the columns. Start by populating category names at the top, i.e. item names, quantity, part number etc.
- Fill in the rows. Again, populate the rows with information according to the column category
- Update the file as needed.
When creating a BOM file, remember to save it often and record any changes that you make.
The final document should include all the essential Items for PCB assembly.
- part number
- SMT method
- manufacturer name
- reference designator
- BOM level
When you’ve double checked and verifying that the BOM has all the right and necessary details, you can now send it out or use it to source the components that you need.
Talking of components, which ones can you mount on an industrial PCB?
List of components you can mount on Industrial PCB
Industrial PCB components
Earlier on, I told you that industrial PCBs, actually PCBs, in general, are made up of several layers.
Now, the copper layer usually is the skeleton of the PCB. It acts as its basic structure on which parts and components are etched.
Note that the components of the PCB are integral to its performance. They give the circuit the unique qualities that make it fit for its intended application.
And, they vary depending on the device or equipment they’re designed for.
That said, these are some of the components that you can mount on an industrial PCB.
- Integrated circuits (ICs)
What to consider when sourcing for industrial PCB components
It is one thing to source for PCB components and it another thing to source for quality and the best PCB components.
In any case, the best PCBs use the best components.
Using the best or rather the right PCB components provides fewer avenues for failure in your circuit. And, they cost the least to make.
The wrong choice of components, on the other hand, may lead to endless problems that can increase your project’s cost significantly.
This is especially if some of the components are rare, expensive and worse off counterfeit.
Luckily, there are a few things you can consider to ensure that you only source the right components for your project.
As I’ve said, a BOM is an integral part of sourcing for PCB components.
A comprehensive and accurate bill of materials will allow you to source for the right components for your project.
Industrial PCB design
The design layout of your industrial PCB is also integral in this case.
It helps to identify what parts and components you’ll need for the manufacturing of the actual PCB.
So when sourcing, always consider the design and what components it incorporates.
You need quality industrial components which means you have to source them from a quality supplier.
If you’re doing the sourcing yourself, you’ve to identify a supplier/s who are known to provide a variety of PCB components.
The suppliers should be able to offer components that are both quality and affordable.
Most importantly, they should be compliant with all the industry rules and regulations.
The same applies to if you’re letting your manufacturer do the sourcing. In this case, recommend trusted suppliers to them.
Cost is a driving influence behind PCB components sourcing.
So it’s good to understand the cost adders when sourcing for industrial PCB components.
Additional layers, extra thick or thin boards, vias-in-pad, back-filled vias (non-conductive preferred due to conductivity limitations and thermal expansion differences), blind/buried vias, and lead time all substantially add to the overall cost.
Other things that you should keep in mind when sourcing for industrial PCB components are size, availability and tolerance criterion.
These are critical towards ensuring that you get the right components for your project.
Industrial PCB Manufacturing Process
As I’ve mentioned severally in this guide, industrial PCBs are used to connect industrial electronic components, using conductive tracks, pads and more.
They are generally responsible for mechanically supporting the electronic components of the equipment, most of which are soldered to the board.
Now since every industrial equipment is different and is made using different components, the whole process of manufacturing PCBs is highly customized.
In this section, I will talk about the production process, design and layout, the basics of prototypes and assembly capability.
·Industrial PCB Designs and Layout
Industrial PCB layout
When thinking of industrial PCB manufacturing process, design and layout come first.
You need to know what you want and identify a designer that will bring your idea to life (virtually).
Understand that PCB design and layout is the most crucial stage of manufacturing an industrial circuit board.
It is the design that will decide how the product will look like and work.
A successful PCB design is one that supports the functioning of the device inside which it is lodged. Not all devices have the same price, and so the PCB design can accordingly vary on various factors.
The nature of users and their access to resources also influence the style of PCB.
In this age of automation, designing is done via specialized software that is available both online and offline; these can be free as well as paid.
·Industrial PCB Prototyping
See, you must find a manufacturer that specializes in industrial PCB prototyping.
Such that after the design and layout are approved for production, you can prototype and test it first to ensure function and feature.
Depending on the complications of the PCB, making the prototype may take more time than usual.
A PCB prototype, once ready, is further tested in many cases by third-party services, after which it is sent for production.
Only a few manufacturers have the engineering abilities and expertise to design PCB prototypes, and the choice must be made with care.
This is because the whole function and other aspects of the final product are dependent on that.
Usually, producing the PCB prototype requires more time and investment than the actual production.
But once the prototype is approved, you can proceed to assembly.
·Industrial PCB Assembly Capability
Here, all the necessary parts and components of the PCB (according to the design requirements) are etched on the board.
This is where the board becomes complete and is said to be ready for dispatch to you/clients.
Now, many companies specialize in PCB assembly, and you can expect best services from them.
But before you select one, you should check their areas of expertise and the range of clients and projects they’ve managed so far.
It is also important to understand the company’s infrastructure and assembly capabilities before working with them.
At the end of the day, Industrial PCBs are all about performance.
And, you would want a manufacturer that can guarantee quality, function and features without any compromises.
Of course, the cost of manufacturing is one of the many aspects that you must consider.
And, more than that, you must find ways to reduce the overall cost of production.
So check if you can get a discount, and get an estimate in advance so that you can compare choices.
For industrial PCBs, performance and quality are non-negotiable. Thus, you must find a reliable manufacturer even if that means paying a tad more.
Features of a High Quality Industrial PCB
Industrial PCBs are designed to be used in high powered industrial applications.
And as you well know, industrial applications such as in factories and manufacturing facilities often experience harsh conditions.
This could be anything from contact with harsh chemicals, extreme temperatures, vibrating machinery, rough handling etc.
Any components, therefore, that are used herein have to be able to survive all these conditions and function optimally.
Meaning, they have to be of high-quality, regardless. Otherwise, they won’t be able to function correctly.
Turnkey PCB solution
So how do you identify a high quality industrial PCB?
·Strong base material
As the backbone of a PCB, the base material has to be of excellent quality, strength and durability especially when it’s being used in high-powered industrial applications.
A quality industrial PCB has to have the capacity to conduct the flow of electrons. This is to show just how reliable the product is and the base material has a lot to do with it.
Good quality and strong base material help to avoid problems in your project such as open circuit, delamination etc.
Due to this, you have to test base material before putting any industrial PCB to use.
·Thick solder resist layer
A high quality industrial PCB should have an amply thick solder resist layer.
This way, you’re guaranteed that it can withstand the effects of corrosion.
A thin layered solder resists PCB can easily peel off when exposed to corrosive elements in its application.
In addition to improving PCB’s corrosion resistance, a thick solder resist layer also makes the board more tolerant to mechanical impact.
A quality and reliable industrial PCB is one that has been tried and tested for performance and reliability.
As we know, a PCB is responsible for any electronic product’s ability to function electronically.
For example, an ohmmeter with a damaged or defective PCB will not be able to produce the results that it’s supposed to simply because it is electronically unable to do so.
Defects in the ohmmeter’s PCB will have rendered it useless. A PCB is where the signals are processed for the expected output to be achieved. When it does not function as it is intended to, the end user will not be able to use the device.
You see, electronic product’s manufacturers will always have to put their products under PCB testing.
This is to ensure that the PCB is working before it is installed into the product for distribution.
So as you hire a manufacturer for your PCB manufacturing, ensure that he/she provides testing services.
It doesn’t matter if the testing is done in-house or outsourced, the fact remains that the quality and reliability of an industrial PCB is determined through testing.
So make sure that you can establish this fact when looking for quality in your products.
· Copper cladding
I will not lie to you; a high quality and reliable industrial PCB has to have copper cladding.
Not just any cladding, but one that meets the industry set tolerance standards.
This could be under quality criteria IPC4101 ClassB/L.
This feature, note, is essential in ensuring better control on the dielectric layer thickness.
An amply thick dielectric layer helps to reduce the deviation in the expected value of performance.
Quality copper cladding is not all an industrial PCB needs for optimal performance; quality components are needed too.
These are the main features that you should look out for in a quality industrial PCB.
Moving on, let’s talk about Industrial PCB applications.
Industrial PCB Applications
PCB applications in the industrial sector vary widely.
These electronic components power much of the equipment in manufacturing and distribution centres as well as other types of industrial facilities.
Now, industrial PCBs often need to be especially high powered and highly durable to withstand the harsh industrial conditions.
Due to this, industrial PCBs are made with durable metals or thermal resistant materials.
They are also made thicker than other kinds of PCBs for this same reasons.
So what are some of the applications for industrial PCBs?
Electrical panel with PCB
· Manufacturing equipment
Industrial PCBs are used widely to power manufacturing equipment such as electric drills and presses
The components that power many types of industrial equipment use PCBs.
This power equipment includes DC-to-AC power inverters, solar power cogeneration equipment and more.
Industrial PCBs often power equipment that measures and controls pressure, temperature and other factors.
These are the main areas where PCBs are used in the industrial sector.
Understand that this kind of PCBs are also used in a wide range of industries.
You can expect to find them in the following industries;
- Health care
Industrial PCBs are virtually everywhere in the modern industry.
Basically, any industry that uses electronic equipment requires industrial PCB.
Whatever application you intend to use your industrial PCBs for, it is important that they’re reliable, affordable and designed to fit your needs.
FAQs on Industrial PCBs
We’ve come to the end of our guide today.
But before we sign out, I understand that some of you still have questions that this guide has not answered.
Because of this, I’ve included this section to help answer a few of the common questions asked about industrial PCBs.
I hope you find your answers.
1)What is PCBA?
PCBA (printed circuit board assembly) is the process of etching parts and components on a circuit board.
It is the finished circuit board that includes all functional elements.
2)What is the difference between PCB and PCBA?
PCB (printed circuit board) is a bare circuit board that is supplied with layout data and to which functional elements are mounted on.
A PCBA on the other is a finished circuit board complete with functional elements.
Although the term PCB is often used to indicate both the bare and finished boards, it is important to note that when compared, these two terms refer to two different things as stated above.
3)What is PCB fabrication?
PCB fabrication is the assembly method for circuit boards.
It is through this process that layers of the board are put together along with the specific pattern so it can be used in electronics manufacturing.
4)How is PCB made step by step?
The manufacturing process of a PCB is systemic.
It follows these steps;
- Design of the PCB before actual manufacturing
- The approved PCB design is printed to a laminate, the body of the structure
- A substrate as per the requirement of the design is created
- The inner layers(copper) are printed to a laminate, also following the indications of the design
- Once layered, ultraviolet rays are used to harden them
- Excess copper is removed
- Inspection of the board for proper alignment is done
- PCB layer are laminated
- Drilling guiding holes
- PCB plating to fuse all layers
- Imaging and plating the outer layer
- The last etching of components is done
- Application of solder mask
- Finishing and silk-screening
- Reliability testing
- And finally, cutting and profiling to
5)What is a good software for PCB designing?
When you get to the point of choosing PCB design software, you need to consider a few things.
The budget, operating system, needs and shareability is some of the things that should help decide on a proper PCB design software.
That said, several options include;
6)What liquid is used in PCB etching?
Usually, copper chloride and ferric chloride are used as etchants in PCB fabrication.
7)What is PCB etchant?
The etchant is the liquid; often acid used to remove unwanted copper material from a circuit board.
8)How do you etch a PCB
To etch a PCB, you just dip the board into the etchant for about 30 minutes.
Once the etchant reacts with the unmasked copper, remove it as it will have removed the unwanted copper from the PCB.
9)What makes aluminium ideal for usage in PCB circuit?
Aluminium-based PCBs are safe and durable for long-lasting use.
Apart from this, they are also anti-corrosive, reflective, and non-toxic and above all could be recycled.
But most importantly, aluminium is highly ductile. Because of this, it can be processed easily.
10)What is a Gerber file in PCB?
A Gerber file is an open 2D binary vector image.
It is the standard file used by printed circuit board (PCB) industry software to describe the printed circuit board images.
11)How do you test a PCB board?
Testing a PCB board uses capacitance and resistance.
A capacitance test checks for opens and shorts by sensing a charge on the net (trace or plane).
Then, it probes each net to measure the induced capacity.
Resistance on the other hand measures resistance as the current flows through a conductor.
12)What is the use of PCB test points in PCB circuits?
A test point in PCB circuits is a location within the circuit that is used to either monitor the state of the circuitry or to inject test signals.
Primarily, test points have two uses:
- During manufacturing to verify that a newly assembled deceive is working correctly
- After use and the device malfunctions, test points can be used to repair the device
13)What causes PCBs to fail?
The most causes of PCB failures are components of design failures such as incorrect component placements, power failure, and overheating.
Soldering issues are also attributed to causing PCB failures.
14)How do you measure the voltage on a circuit board?
Measuring the voltage on an electronic circuit is quite simple as you don’t have to insert the meter into the circuit.
All you need to do is touch the leads of the multimeter to any two points of the circuit.
When you do this, the multimeter will display the voltage that exists between the two points.
15)Is there any good PCB service in China
There are so many good service providers for PCB manufacturer and assembly in China.
You can easily find many different PCB assemblers with high quality and competitive Printed Circuit Boards.
But as one of the most experienced and leading PCB manufacturer and assembler, Venture electronics offers Industrial PCB and PCB assembly services in China.
We are specialized in PCB assemblies of industrial electronic devices and manufacturing standard and custom industrial PCB.
We also serve the best PCB design and manufacturing for industrial applications.
Finally, we’ve come to the end of this guide.
I hope that the information given herein will help you gain a better understanding of what industrial PCBs are, their uses, applications among other things.
This guide, I also believe, will help you make the right choice when it comes to buying industrial PCBs for your application.
If you need any help or have questions that you think we can answer, please feel free to leave a comment below, or contact us directly-we will be glad to help.