Surface Mount Technology PCB

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Surface Mount Technology Assembly VS Through-Hole Assembly

Electronic components mounted in SMT assembly are called surface mount devices (SMDs). In the PCB assembly industry, the SMT assembly method has largely replaced the through-hole technology (THT) construction method of filled components, it’s most likely because SMT allows for increased manufacturing automation to reduce costs and improve quality, especially when electronic devices pursue size miniaturization.

Both technologies can be used on the same board at the same time, THT is often used for components that are not suitable for SMT, such as large transformers and thermal power semiconductors.

Surface Mount Technology Assembly VS Through-Hole Assembly
The Main Advantages of Surface Mount Technology Assembly

The Main Advantages of Surface Mount Technology Assembly

●Small Size and Light Weight
Using SMT technology to assemble components allows us to place more components in a limited space, resulting in a compact design and better performance.
●High Reliability
After the prototype is confirmed, the entire SMT assembly process is almost automated by precision machines to minimize errors.
●Save Costs
SMT assembly is usually accomplished by automated machines, helping to reduce manual steps in the SMT process, significantly increasing production efficiency and reducing labor costs.

Surface Mount Technology Assembly Capabilities of Venture Electronics

Our capabilities in producing high quality SMT printed circuit board assembly services:
●State-of-the-art SMT assembly line to ensure reliable circuit boards.
●Production-ready components for reduced turnaround time.
●Assemble the following types of single- and double-sided SMT PCBs:
Ball Grid Array (BGA)
Ultrafine Ball Grid Array (uBGA)
Quad Flat Package Lead Free (QFN)
Quad Flat Pack (QFP)
Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC)
Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC)
Package-on-Package (PoP)
Chiplet package (0.2 mm pitch)

Surface Mount Technology Assembly Capabilities of Venture Electronics

Your Best Surface Mount Technology Partner

Surface Mount Technology

 

We are a known surface mount technology design supplier in China for over 10 years of expertise. We render our valued buyers the very prominent commodities at the cheapest pricing. Venture can also satisfy other design that is related to surface mount technology like:

  • Green Printed Circuit Board
  • Blue Tint Surface Mount Technology
  • Integrated Surface Mount Technology
  • Electronics Surface Mount Technology
  • Microcontroller Electronic PCB
  • Global Surface Mount Technology

Your Leading Surface Mount Technology Supplier in China

Venture Surface Mount Technology is manufactured for various circuit board use. We are a professional Surface Mount Technology manufacturer in China for over 10 years. Venture Surface Mount Technology has outstanding performance and durability. It features a system in the electrical components that are mounted straight onto the surface of a printed circuit board.

Surface Mount Technology

Venture has a leading surface mount technology supplying design range, we can assemble hundreds of surface mount technology every day with our mechanical production line, so you will consistently have enough surface mount technology even in peak days. We have multiple sets of different surface mount technology manufacturing lines and in the surface mount technology manufacturing proficiency. Whether you are in demand of a surface mount technology design supplier, merchandiser, a personalize surface mount technology design factory, Venture is always your most authentic choice because we can always build your demands.

Surface Mount Technology

We allow our valued consumers the very exceptional products at the most inexpensive pricing. We will grant you the one-stop solution for all your surface mount technology request. Any sort of surface mount technology, contact Venture, we will provide you the greatest surface mount technology design solution, orders or no orders, we’re always happy to assist your business.

Surface Mount Technology

Venture assurance maximum control over standard and the power to design and give custom to customers’ specs. We can assist you to design your product and have the ability to speedily fabricate for your evaluation. Our products undergo outstanding precise quality control to feature your demand.

Surface Mount Technology

Venture is the only supplier design that renders lots of related options such as surface mount technology. We will assist you to personalize your surface mount technology orders. Venture has plenty of experience in sales fabrication, we also provide an online services site for your online sourcing. So you can purchase and update your printed circuit board products and supplies. Because Venture supports every consumer up to date with our new product trends in this fast-moving PCB design business.

If you are in need of a surface mount technology feel free to reach us for help.

Surface Mount Technology: The Ultimate FAQ Guide

Surface-Mount-Technology-The-Ultimate-FAQ-Guide

If you’re planning to choose a surface mount technology as an alternative way to assemble PCB, then read this guide.

It has all information you need to know about SMT PCB assembly.

What Is Surface Mount Technology?

Surface mount technology is a methodology of assembling components on a printed circuit board.

Also, you will attach the electrical components to the surface of the circuit board through the batch solder-reflow technique.

The component you attach using a surface mount technology is known as a surface-mount device [SMD]

 surface mount technology

surface mount technology

What Is The History Behind Surface Mount Technology?

Surface mount technology was known as planar mounting and began in the 1960s.

By the year 1986, surface-mounted devices took 10% of the components in the market and were becoming popular.

High-tech electronic PCBs started using surface mount devices in the late 1990s, with IBM being the main pioneer.

Electronic parts became smaller requiring direct soldering on the surface of the PCBs.

Placing components on both sides of the PCB became common through surface mount technology than thru-hole technology.

This feature made it possible to make smaller PCBs with high circuit density.

What Are The Benefits Of Surface Mount Technologies?

There are several benefits to using surface mount technologies, and they include the following:

Compact PCB

Surface mount devices are up to 80% smaller than thru-hole components, and they are also lightweight.

This makes them occupy less space enabling you to make smaller and slimmer versions of printed circuit boards.

PCB Flexibility

Surface mount technology will provide more flexibility to the design and the PCB materials.

This is because you will mount the electronic parts directly on the surface of the PCB.

Besides, flexible and rigid-flex PCB versions are possible because of surface mount technologies.

Automated Production

Here, you will use an automated pick and place surface mount technology machine to place electronic components.

This automatic feature will minimize the costs related to production and processing.

Besides, this is unlike thru-hole technology where you need to manually insert parts on the circuit board.

Increased Signal Transmission

The parts you assemble using surface mount technology are compact and have high-density circuitry.

Besides, the density of the components can be about 5-5-20 solder joints/cm2 when you paste the PCB on both sides.

Also, the minimal delays and short circuits make surface mount technology PCB achieve high-speed transmission of signals.

PCBs assembly through surface mount technology is vibration and impact resistant.

This feature is important as electronic devices can achieve super high-speed functionality.

High Frequency

This effect will occur as the surface mount technology elements require no leads or that the leads are short.

Also, the distribution characteristics of the circuit are lowered thereby lowering the RF interference.

Reduced Material

A majority of surface mount technology parts are cost-effective to package, handle, and transport.

This is because the production machine has high efficiency and minimal usage of the packaging materials.

Therefore, the surface mount technology parts sell at a lower price.

Also, the manufacturing cost of surface mount technology is lower than that of thru-hole technology.

What Are The Limitations Of Surface Mount Technology?

Some of the disadvantages of using surface mount technology include:

Costly Devices

The equipment necessary for conducting surface mount technology is costly meaning you need a large investment.

These machines include:

  1. Reflow ovens
  2. Solder paste screen printer
  3. Pick and Place equipment
  4. Hot air surface mount device rework station

Inspection Difficulty

It proves difficult to inspect surface mount devices are they are small and contain several solder joints.

Ball Grid Array package contains joints and solder balls beneath the electronic components hence difficult to inspect.

Besides, the machine necessary for conducting surface mount technology inspection is costly.

Easy To Damage

Dropping a surface mount device can easily damage them and they are delicate to ElectroStatic Discharge Damages [ESD].

For this reason, they require ESD products during handling and packaging and you will also handle them in cleanroom environments.

Minimal Power

When using surface mount devices, you will not find all of the passive or active electronic parts.

This causes the power to be less in surface mount technology devices.

Costly Small Production Volume

It is expensive to make a prototype of a surface mount technology circuit board or conduct productions on small scales.

Besides, it is technically complex and requires you to apply much training and expertise.

Can You Rework Surface Mount Components?

It is possible to repair faulty surface mount devices through the use of soldering irons or a non-contact reworking unit.

A rework unit is suitable since surface mount devices operate with soldering iron needing skills and it is not always doable.

Reworking will rectify machine-generated or human errors, and entails the following methods:

  • Melting the solder and removing the electronic parts
  • Removing the remaining solder
  • Printing a solder paste on the circuit board either through dispensing or directly
  • Placing new parts and reflowing

How Does Surface Mount Technology And Through Hole Technology Compare?

In surface mount technology, you will place electronic components directly on the surface of the printed circuit board.

 surface mount technology

surface mount technology

However, in through-hole technology, you will fix electronic components on pre-drilled holes on the printed circuit board.

The surface-mount devices you use with surface mount technology weigh up to a tenth of the through-hole technology components.

Surface mount technology is automatic while through-hole technology is labor-intensive.

Also, you will make a lightweight PCB assembly using surface mount technology.

Since the parts you will use in surface mount technology are small, they occupy a small space on the printed circuit board.

To make smaller and slimmer devices such as smartphones, you will use surface mount technology.

Also, in surface mount technology, you will achieve more resistance towards vibration and shock since the components have a lower mass.

The short lead length of surface mount technology allows for lower parasitic that will lower delay propagation and noise.

Besides, you will use more materials and it will cost you more if you use through-hole technology over surface mount technology.

hole technology

hole technology

Through-hole technology enables you to suitably fix parts on the board making them perform better in applications experiencing shocks and vibrations.

Also, you can quickly fix templates with through-hole technology as it does not require you to set up machines.

What Are Some Examples Of Surface Mount Technology Machines?

These include:

Pick And Place Machine

These are the most popular machines you will use in surface mount technology.

It is also known as a pick and place robot.

This machine will pick and place surface mount devices on the printed circuit board before soldering.

Pick and place machines account for up to 50% of the cost for a surface mount technology production line.

Solder Paste Screen Printer

This machine performs the task of screen printing solder paste on the PCB before placing surface mount devices for reflow soldering.

The level of automation and the PCB size it can handle will determine its price.

Baking Oven

This machine is suitable for curing adhesives and solder paste baking.

Also, you can use the same or various baking ovens to conduct both processes.

Conducting reflow soldering with infrared or convection ovens can perform both tasks.

Depending on your production volume, you can combine the following in similar equipment:

  1. Solder reflow
  2. Solder paste baking
  3. Adhesive curing

Reflow Soldering Machine

This is the second most vital equipment in surface mount technology after the pick and place equipment.

Besides, it will reflow solder using solder paste on the surface mount devices.

Reflow soldering machine will cost you about 25% of the overall price of the surface mount technology assembly line.

Some of the reflow soldering techniques include infrared and vapor phases.

Solvent Cleaning Machine

This equipment will clean and eliminate surplus flux and solder from the electronic components after the soldering process.

Repair And Inspection Machine

This machine performs the task of ensuring the PCB has no flaws after the surface mount technology.

Also, it will repair any defects on the PCB assembly.

These machines include the following:

  1. Soldering iron
  2. Hot air surface mount device rework station

What Are The Surface Mount Technology Soldering Processes?

The process entails the following:

Step One:

Begin by dispensing solder paste containing fine powder on the solder pads.

Besides, you can use a stencil to dispense the solder paste in the screen printing process using surface mount technology screen printers.

Step Two:

After dispensing the solder paste, you will relay the circuit board via a conveyor system of the pink-and-place machine.

The pick-and-place machine will pick then place the surface mount devices on the circuit board.

Step Three:

After placing the electronic parts on the surface mount technology PCB, you will relay it into a reflow solder oven.

There are different chambers within the surface mount technology reflow oven.

The first chamber is known as the pre-heat area.

In this zone, you will uniformly and gradually raise the temperature of the PCB.

This is to prevent the formation of cracks on the PCB because of thermal shock.

Step Four:

The next zone in the reflow oven is the high-temperature area.

Here, the temperature is high to enable the melting of solder paste to make the component leads solder on the PCB pads.

Surface tension within the molten solder maintains the electronic parts in order.

Besides, the surface tension will align the parts on their respective pads automatically.

Step Five:

Here, you will wash and eliminate surplus flux from the PCB using surface mount technology solvent cleaning equipment.

Step Six:

Here, you will inspect the PCB assembly to ensure everything is in order according to the manufacturing specifications.

If there are any flaws, you will rework the PCB.

Finally, you will test to ensure the PCB is operational.

What Are The Types Of Surface Mounting In Surface Mounting Technology?

Active and passive surface mount devices form three types of surface mount technology assemblies.

The types of surface mount include the following:

Type I

This assembly version has surface mount devices.

In this type, you can have either a double-sided or single-sided printed circuit board.

Type II

This is a combination of type I and type II.

It lacks active surface mount components on the lower section but may have distinct surface mount components on the bottom section.

Type III

This assembly version has distinct surface mount devices that you will glue to the lower section.

These surface mount components include the following:

  1. Resistors
  2. Capacitors
  3. Transistors

What Are The Examples Of Surface Mount Technology Soldering Process?

There are numerous phases necessary to solder surface mount devices on printed circuit boards.

Besides, there are two common techniques you will use to solder these parts.

These processes require you to layout the circuit board with different design rules.

They also need the surface mount technology soldering method to vary.

These two processes include the following:

Wave Soldering

This soldering method was the first one to be introduced.

It involves using a small bath containing molten solder which flows out forming a small wave.

The PCB and its parts pass over the small wave causing the solder wave to provide solder that solders the electronic components.

This process is suitable when the components are held in place, such as using small dots of glue.

This is to prevent them from relocating or moving.

Reflow Soldering

This is preferably the most popular method and it entails applying the solder on the circuit board via solder screens.

Afterward, you will place electronic parts on the PCB then hold them in place using the solder paste.

Besides, this solder will sufficiently hold the parts in place as long as you do not knock or jolt the PCB.

Afterward, you will pass the PCB via infrared heaters.

This effect will melt the solder which offers a sufficient joint that enhances mechanical strength and electrical conductivity.

What Are Some Reflow Soldering Processes You Can Apply In Surface Mount Technology?

These include the following:

  • Infrared reflow
  • Vapor phase reflow
  • Hot gas convection

What Are The Assembly Processes In Surface Mount Technology?

The assembly processes include the following:

Preparing And Inspecting Materials

Here, you will prepare the surface mount devices and check for any flaws.

The printed circuit board has a flat, normally tin-lead, gold-plated, or silver pad containing no holes.

These are known as pads.

Preparing The Templates

Here, you will use a steel mesh to fix the board on the solder paste printing.

Besides, the manufacturing process happens per the position of the design pads.

Solder Paste Printing

The first piece of equipment you will install during the manufacturing process is known as the solder paste printer.

This equipment will apply solder paste on the respective solder pads on the printed circuit board.

It performs this task with the assistance of scrapers and templates.

Besides, this is the most popular technique of solder paste application.

However, another method that is gaining popularity is spray printing.

This is evident in sub-contract areas that require no template and it is simple to conduct modification.

Also, you will use flux and tin mixture to connect the surface mount devices and printed circuit board solder pads.

Besides, it is suitable for printed circuit boards and dies that use scrapers at an angle between 45° and 60°.

Inspecting The Solder Paste

A majority of solder paste presses have the capability of performing automatic detection.

However, this depends on the PCB size and can consume more time meaning you can select independent machines.

Internal detection units of solder paste printers apply 2D technology while other dedicated systems use 3D technology.

Component Location

The PCB moves to the next manufacturing phase after confirmation that the solder applications are in the correct number.

This phase entails placing the electronic parts on the circuit board.

A vacuum or clamping nozzles remove every part from its package then inspect them using visual units.

Afterward, it will place the components on the PCB at high speeds following a programmed positioning system.

First Piece Inspection

This entails verifying the customer details which can consume a lot of time.

Besides, this process is important as it eliminates reworking the PCB if undetected errors.

Reflow Soldering

After checking the positioning of the components, the PCB assembly moves to reflow welders.

Here, the electronic components and PCBs forms strong connections as it heats the PCB assembly to adequate temperatures.

This is vital to enhance solder joints do not overheat.

Cleaning And Inspecting

Here, you will clean and inspect for any flaws after the welding process, and conduct reworks where necessary.

The equipment you can use for this process include:

  1. Flying needle tester
  2. Magnifying glass
  3. Automatic optical inspection
  4. X-ray machines

 What Are Some Solutions To Surface Mount Technology Flaws?

These include:

  • Increasing levels of preheating temperature to ensure a small temperature difference between terminals during reflux
  • Choose parts and printed circuit boards whose pads and leads are consistently solderable
  • Minimize movement of the PCB assembly during the reflow stages
  • Avoid harsh environmental conditions to prevent viscous forces that are inefficient
  • Measure the height of solder paste deposits using visual systems to ensure equal height between solder paste deposits on solder pads
  • Increase the force when placing the components to enhance the contact of the terminals and the solder paste deposit

What Are The Applications Of Surface Mount Technology?

Surface mount technology allows you to achieve high reliability and density circuitry at reduced costs.

The surface mount technology finds its application in:

  • Consumer electronics
  • Home construction
  • Medical equipment
  • Aerospace components
  • Security equipment
  • LEDs
  • Safety equipment
  • Industrial equipment

How Do Surface Mount Technology And Surface Mount Devices Compare?

These two terminologies usually confuse the manufacture of electronic services.

Surface mount technology is the process of placing components directly on the surface of printed circuit boards.

surface mount device

surface mount device

However, surface mount devices are the components you will use with surface mount technology.

The surface-mounted devices are small components that you will attach to printed circuit boards during the manufacture of electronics.

Surface-mounted devices are small since new technology champions small yet faster equipment.

What Are The Alternatives To Surface Mount Technology?

Surface mount technology is a commonly used process in printed circuit board assembly, but other alternatives exist.

These include the following:

Thru-hole technology

This process entails mounting the leads of the electronic parts within the printed circuit board.

The process occurs by first drilling holes on the circuit board where you will connect the leads.

After inserting the lead, you will solder them to pads that are on the opposite side of the printed circuit board.

This version of mounting electronic components offers high mechanical strength.

Besides, they are suitable for conducting tests and prototypes.

Pin Grid Array [PGA]

This mounting technology operates the same as thru-hole technology.

The pins will form rectangular or square arrays which you will mount on printed circuit boards through surface mount technology.

Besides, you will insert the pins in a socket hence does not require soldering processes.

Solderless Breadboard

This system will enhance testing and forming circuits before making the final circuit design.

Besides, you can easily change them since they are simple to adjust and remove.

However, this method is not common since the tools available cannot make a circuit design containing high voltage.

They will also interfere with signal integrity when you are working with higher frequencies.

What Are The Categories Of Surface Mount Technology Components?

There are various ways of packaging the various surface mount technology components.

They include:

Passive Components

There are various packages that you can use for passive surface mount devices.

Besides, most passive surface-mount devices are surface mount technology capacitors and resistors with standard package sizes.

The resistors and capacitors contain various package sizes and possess designations including 0201, 1812, 0402, and 0805.

Transistors and Diodes

Surface mount technology diodes and transistors are usually within small plastic packages.

The connections are composed through leads that project from packages.

Besides, they are bent for them not to contact the board, and the packages use three leads.

This allows you to know the direction that you need to align the device.

Integrated Circuits

These packages rely on interconnectivity levels needed.

Several chips need 14 pins or 16 pins while others like the VLSI processors need equal or more than 200 pins.

How Can You Troubleshoot The Common Flaws In Surface Mount Technology?

Here are common flaws for surface mount technology and how to troubleshoot them:

Solder Balls

Possible causes include:

  1. Smearing of solder paste below stencils
  2. Stencils not aligning with PCB
  3. Incorrect squeegee pressure
  4. Solvent remaining after cleaning the stencil underside

The possible solutions entail the following:

  1. Make sure the squeegee has the correct pressure
  2. Ensure the cleaning solvent evaporates completely before you begin printing
  3. Make sure you have suitable gasketting
  4. Ensure proper alignment

Oxidized Paste

The plausible causes include:

  1. Unrefrigerated paste
  2. Paste spending more time in hot areas
  3. The alloy is delicate to oxidation
  4. Filling old paste inside jars
  5. Not refrigerating jars after opening

Some possible solutions to this issue include running fresh paste and inspecting if the solder bar fades

Other problems and their solutions entail:

  1. Using proper squeegee pressure if the paste goes out between PCB and stencils
  2. Use a fresh paste if the paste dries out after printing
  3. Apply the correct profile if the ramp is slow during reflow profiles
  4. When the ramp flows rapidly in profile flows, use slower ramps to enable evaporation of volatiles

Solder Beading

The plausible causes include:

  1. The reflow profile slowly ramps up
  2. Surplus solder paste on pads
  3. Unsuitable squeegee pressure
  4. Cleaning solvent not drying

The possible solutions include:

  1. Use a rapid profile when ramping up at between 1.5 and 2.5 °C per second
  2. Minimize the stencil aperture dimension or use a thinner stencil
  3. Lower the purge duration on the dispenser
  4. Use the appropriate squeegee pressure

Bridging

The possible causes include:

  1. Cold slumping
  2. Paste begins to flow apart following printing
  3. Hot slumping
  4. Paste smears beneath the stencil
  5. Surplus solder paste depositing on pads

The possible solutions entail:

  1. Increasing the printing speed
  2. Lowering thickness of stencils
  3. Minimize solder paste usage
  4. Inspect the alignment of PCB and stencils

Insufficient Opening

The possible causes include:

  1. Dried paste blocking stencil aperture
  2. High-speed squeegee
  3. Low solder paste viscosity
  4. Scooping while printing

Possible solutions entail;

  1. Unblock stencil aperture
  2. Use other PCBs
  3. Lower squeegee pressure
  4. Inspect viscosity of the paste

Tombstoning

Possible causes entail:

  1. Bad component placement
  2. Unequal heat sinks

Possible solutions entail:

  1. Ensure proper placement
  2. Increase the soak time

Unmelted Solder Paste

The possible cause is a cold profile reflow and solder paste melting incompletely.

Possible solutions include inspecting the reflow profile and increasing the soak time.

Hot Slump

This happens when the reflow profile has a slow ramp up.

The solution entails increasing the temperature of the ramp up.

Surplus fillet

This happens due to surplus solder paste on pads

The possible solutions include minimizing purge time for dispensers and stencil thickness.

What Are The Surface Mount Technology Equipment For Repair And Inspection?

The equipment you will use is the surface mount technology rework station.

What Should You Consider When Designing Surface Mounts In Surface Mount Technology?

These include:

  • The reliability of the solder joint
  • Determining the product requirement
  • CTE mismatching
  • Type of CAD system
  • Surface-mount device electronic parts

More Resources:

SMT PCB Assembly

PCB Assembly

Through Hole Assembly

For any questions or inquiry about surface mount technology, contact us now.

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