- Refrigerator PCB is supplied by highly experienced design staff
- Providing extremely reliable Refrigerator PCB
- 10 years of Refrigerator PCB supplying experiences
- Offer components with a friendly price
What are the Different Kinds of a Refrigerator PCB?
The diferent kinds of Refrigerator PCB include the following:
1.Mainboard PCB&Inverter Single Door Refrigerator PCB
2.Solar Universal PCB&Genuine Refrigerator PCB
3.Electronic Refrigerator PCB&Sub Inverter PCB
4.Professional Refrigerator PCB&Refurbished Refrigerator PCB
5.Smart Mini Refrigerator PCB&High-Density PCB
What Function Does a PCB Play in a Refrigerator?
The Refrigerator PCB is in take of all of the electrical handle and set up in your refrigerator;
However,it’s possible that the PCB is to blame if your refrigerator has begin to proceed.
Refrigerator PCBs are in take of monitoring and controlling temperature settings, like as chilling and defrosting periods, in the refrigerator.
They also proceed the ability to detect a fre and enable you to avoid harmful condition..
What are the Causes of Failure of Refrigerator PCB?
The following failures can see the most common problems in a Refrigerator PCB:
1.The refrigerator is not cooling correctly&Thermostat failure
2.Buildup of ice&Strange noises coming from the refrigerator
3.Leakage of water in the refrigerator
4.Evaporator coils not working properly
5.Evaporator motor not working properly
6.Complete loss of power in the refrigerator
Your Best Refrigerator PCB Partner
We are a professional Refrigerator PCB design supplier in China for over 10 years of experience. We offer our valued customers the very best products at the most affordable pricing. Venture can also supply other design that is related to Refrigerator PCB such as:
- Inverter Single Door Refrigerator PCB
- Genuine Refrigerator PCB
- Sub Inverter Refrigerator PCB
- Refurbished Refrigerator PCB
- Double Door Refrigerator PCB
- Single-Sided Refrigerator PCB
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Refrigerator PCB: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
Let’s look at some of the fundamental aspects you should know when looking for refrigerator PCB.
Let’s dive right in.
- What Is A Refrigerator PCB?
- What Materials Are Refrigerator PCBs Made Of?
- Why Is Copper A Suitable Material For Refrigerator PCB?
- How Do You Create The Conductive Pattern On A Refrigerator PCB?
- How Do You Prepare Prepreg For A Refrigerator PCB?
- What Properties Of FR-4 Make It Ideal For A Refrigerator PCB?
- Can You Employ Ceramic Substrates For Your Refrigerator PCB?
- Why Is Thermal Conductivity An Important Aspect Of A Refrigerator PCB?
- What Are Some Of The Components You Find Attached On A Refrigerator PCB?
- Can You Replace the Refrigerator PCB?
- How Do You Replace the Refrigerator PCB?
- What Are Some Of The Problems You Encounter On Your Refrigerator PCB?
- What Can Cause A Refrigerator PCB To Fail?
- Can You Employ Surface Finish On A Refrigerator PCB?
- What Solder Masks Are Available for A Refrigerator PCB?
- Is A Silkscreen Layer Important On A Refrigerator PCB?
- Do Refrigerator PCBs Have Vias?
- What Drilling Techniques Can You Use For Vias On Your Refrigerator PCB?
- Is Edge Plating Applicable On A Refrigerator PCB?
- What Design Rule Checks Are Applicable For A Refrigerator PCB?
- How Important Are The Glass Transition And Decomposition Temperatures For A Refrigerator PCB?
- What Are the Flammability Guidelines for Materials in A Refrigerator PCB?
What Is A Refrigerator PCB?
The circuit board in your refrigerator controls and determines the electrical capability and functions of your refrigeration system.
You find the refrigerator PCB central to the operation of parts of your refrigerator such as the compressor and evaporator.
Whenever you have malfunctions in your fridge, examining the refrigerator PCB can help you identify the issue.
You can repair the damage on a refrigerator PCB r replace it to restore the refrigerator to its proper function.
What Materials Are Refrigerator PCBs Made Of?
Refrigerator PCBs like other PCBs consist of laminates (non-conductive layers) and conductive metal sheets.
You can use metals such as copper, silver, and gold to make the conductive metal track.
You find copper commonly employed as the conductive metal in designing the trace of PCBs such as the refrigerator PCB.
Additionally, a PCB includes different elements and layers which you derive from one of a kind substances.
For instance, the solder masks composes of solder material.
Contrarily, you can line the conductive lines with different material including gold, nickel, silver, and tin for anti-corrosion purposes.
Why Is Copper A Suitable Material For Refrigerator PCB?
You find metals such as silver and gold as alternatives to copper in making the conductive trace of refrigerator PCBs.
However, copper finds wide usage for several reasons including the ones mentioned below:
Copper is a superb conductor of electrical signals. The electric switch functionality of copper is characterized with reduced signal loss.
You can credit the use of copper to its low price that makes fabrication of the circuit board economical. Copper is readily available when you compare it to other metals with better signal transfer capability such as silver and gold.
Copper is also a great thermal conductor.
You can eliminate the generated heat effectively when employing copper avoiding accumulation that can induce damaging strain.
You find copper highly compatible with other materials employed in the construction of a refrigerator PCB.
The performance level you get for employing copper with FR-4, CEM, or ceramic is reliable across applications.
Copper traces on PCB
How Do You Create The Conductive Pattern On A Refrigerator PCB?
There are two common approaches you employ in creating the conductive trace of a refrigerator PCB. You can use direct plating or etching to define your conductive pattern on the circuit board.
Direct plating involves the deposition of copper metal or other conductive material on the board surface in the desired pattern.
On the other hand, etching is the process of removing undesired material components from a surface while maintaining the pattern formation.
Because it involves the removal of material, etching is also known as a subtractive technique.
You can employ two types of etching techniques: dry etching and wet etching.
Dry etching is the process of removing undesirable material using plasma-related technologies. Alternatively, you employ chemical solutions to start extractive processes in wet etching.
How Do You Prepare Prepreg For A Refrigerator PCB?
Prepreg is a woven glass fiber and resin material referring to how the resin is impregnated into the glass cloth.
A woven sheet of fiber starts the process and you can use a weaving process that uses fiberglass as a yarn.
You thereafter reinforce it with resin material by rolling through a process house.
A resin-based epoxy consisting epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A components adheres to the glass cloth in the form of granules or immersion.
You then deliver the material mixture through a roller system, where you spread the resin evenly creating a desired thickness.
What Properties Of FR-4 Make It Ideal For A Refrigerator PCB?
The FR-4 finds use as a laminate in numerous PCB constructions throughout the industry including the refrigerator PCB.
You can make single-sided, double-sided, and multilayer refrigerator boards using FR-4.
The following characteristics contribute to FR-4’s popularity:
- You can operate FR-4 in a wide range of temperatures from – 50°C to 115°C.
- FR – 4 has a high glass transition temperature of around 130°C.
- You derive good dielectric properties with a consistent dielectric constant and minimal dielectric loss using FR-4.
- The mechanical strength supplied by FR-4 is enough for sustaining the integrity of the board structure.
Can You Employ Ceramic Substrates For Your Refrigerator PCB?
You can employ fine ceramic compounds such as aluminium oxide and aluminum nitride as substrates in your refrigerator PCBs.
You find their application attributable to the following characteristics.
- Even in high-temperature situations, fine ceramic materials hold up well given their high glass transition and decomposition temperatures.
- The thermal coefficient of expansion of ceramic compounds is quite low reducing structural flaws induced by different CTEs’ thermal strain.
Furthermore, their CTE is identical to copper’s, resulting in a consistent response to temperature fluctuations.
- Ceramic materials’ capacity to transfer heat energy is unrivaled among substrate materials.
As a result, using ceramic substrates in refrigerator PCB designs ensures high thermal efficiency.
- Ceramic materials have a high flexural strength and tensile modulus allowing them to withstand mechanical forces without breaking.
Consequently, you can use these materials to make multilayer refrigerator PCBs.
- When using a refrigerator, you can, sometimes, encounter inconsistent voltages and surges. When you use ceramic substrates I refrigerator PCBs, you easily handle such issues by providing near-perfect conductive layer isolation.
- Ceramic materials have a very low moisture absorption rate.
As a result, even in the moist situations of a refrigerator, these materials will preserve their thermal and dielectric capabilities.
Why Is Thermal Conductivity An Important Aspect Of A Refrigerator PCB?
The capacity of a material to transfer heat is measured by its thermal conductivity.
When a material’s conductivity is low, it emphasizes its limited ability to transport heat.
A material with a high thermal conductivity easily transfers thermal energy.
In a refrigerator PCB, thermal conductivity is useful for dispersing generated heat.
When you use a high conductivity substrate material in refrigerator PCBs, you improve its board performance.
For instance, ceramic substrates have a higher thermal conductivity than FR-4 materials, according to tests.
They have a thermal conductivity rate comparable to copper allowing use in applications that demand thermally efficient designs.
What Are Some Of The Components You Find Attached On A Refrigerator PCB?
You find different electrical parts of a refrigerator including the compressor motor, starting relay, thermostat and overload protector.
You find all these electrical parts function under the control of a refrigerator PCB containing several components.
Some of the components you find on a refrigerator PCB are:
Section of fridge PCB
You find resistors consist the most basic components in many circuits including refrigerator PCBs, found in different shapes and sizes.
Resistors convert electrical energy into heat thereby restricting the passage of electrons and lessening flow of current or voltage.
You employ inductors in switched-mode power systems to produce DC current as energy storage devices. The inductor stores energy and delivers it to the circuit to keep current flowing during “off” switching periods.
Diodes allow an electric current to flow in only one direction through them and can convert alternating currents to direct currents.
Refrigerator PCBs employ LEDs (light emitting diodes) which illuminate when a current pass through them.
These comparatively simple components are made up of two pieces of conducting material separated by a dielectric material.
A capacitor allows you to store small amounts of electrical charge in an electrical circuit.
Transistors turn small electric currents on and off or amplify them (transform small electric currents into much larger ones).
You can assemble transistors to form logic gates, which may perform extremely basic decision-making functions.
Can You Replace the Refrigerator PCB?
You can replace the refrigerator PCB where the repair is not a feasible option.
Sometimes, you can have repairs whose costs are very high making a replacement a more economical choice.
When you need to repair your refrigerator board, you have to engage a qualified technician.
Replacing parts on a refrigerator PCB is a delicate process that can consume a lot of time and labor.
How Do You Replace the Refrigerator PCB?
In replacing a refrigerator PCB, you find the following steps necessary:
- You have to first disconnect the refrigerator from the mains by unplugging the electric cable connection.
- After disconnecting the refrigerator from a power source, uncover the casing for the refrigerator PCB.
- You follow this by removing the wires connecting to the refrigerator PCB noting their respective connection points for reassembly.
- Use a screwdriver to remover the refrigerator PCB by un-securing the board from its locks.
- Attach the replacement board into the locking tabs by snapping them into position.
Reattach the connections as were in the replaced board.
- Cover the refrigerator PCB by screwing up the casing firmly.
- Reconnect the refrigerator to the mains power supply and plug on.
What Are Some Of The Problems You Encounter On Your Refrigerator PCB?
When working with a refrigerator PCB, you can encounter the following problems related to your board:
1) The Refrigerator Can Fail To Cool With The Fans Running And The Compressor Off.
If the compressor is turned off but both fans are operating, many times the motherboard is the source of the problem.
You find a burn or poor solder joint behind the compressor relay can cause the board to fail in this way.
You can repair the solder joint but better to replace the board especially where it lacks a strong solder joint.
2) The Refrigerator Not Cooling And Evaporator Fan Not Running.
Moisture can sometimes get into the evaporator fan and/or the thermistor, causing the board to short out.
When this happens, you typically find the resistor has burnt out.
If the resistor is burned, you have to replace the board and fan.
While you can just replace the board and not the fan, the fan may blow out your new board.
3) Your Refrigerator Has Intermittent Cooling And Melting Of Ice.
The motherboard uses thermistors to determine how to cool and defrost the system.
You can have faulty thermistors causing the intermittent cooling and melting of ice.
You can find a defective resistor or capacitor causing the voltage to drop across the low voltage side of the board.
In this case, you have to replace the board.
4) The Refrigerator Has A Defrosting Issue.
The main board is in charge of everything that happens in the refrigerator, including the defrost cycle.
It determines when and how long a defrost cycle occurs. Consequently, you find motherboard issues can result in a defrost issue.
5) The Refrigerator Fan Motor Generates Noise Or Keeps Changing Speeds.
You can have the evaporator fan frequently making a whining noise due to a defective motherboard.
This noise is intermittent most of the time, but frequent requiring you to replace the board.
While the fan can change speeds, the main board design stipulates a gradual adjustment of the fan motor speed.
The fan normally takes one minute to go from low to high speed and vice versa. Otherwise, the main board is bad and needs to be replaced.
What Can Cause A Refrigerator PCB To Fail?
PCB design and manufacturing is intricate creating several possibilities for PCB failure.
Some of these failures are the consequence of design flaws or a result of manufacturing flaws.
The following is a list of common refrigerator PCB manufacturing concerns:
Another reason of refrigerator PCB failure is when you employ low quality or poorly produced components.
Physical damage caused by faulty components utilized during electronic assembly during PCB fabrication might hurt the PCB and cause power failure.
Connection difficulties and loose pieces are common refrigerator PCB assembly errors caused by poorly made components.
Furthermore, leftover flux on a PCB panel can cause significant damage and necessitate circuit board repairs.
Copper-coated holes in a printed circuit board are known as plated through-holes made by a drilling process through the board.
Electricity can pass through these holes from one side of the circuit board to the other.
You use an electroplating procedure to apply a layer of copper to the walls of the holes.
While effective, the deposition technique is not without flaws, and in some cases might result in plating voids.
Plating voids are gaps or holes in the circuit board’s plating that are frequently caused by difficulties during copper deposition.
Improper soldering during refrigerator PCB manufacturing might cause significant problems.
A common cause of bad soldering is when you fail to heat the solder sufficiently, resulting in cold soldering.
Cold soldering can result in the failure of a refrigerator PCB.
Furthermore, moisture can also contaminate the PCB pad and other components during the soldering process.
Contamination can burn up the refrigerator PCB components creating connection issues.
The term “acid trap” refers to acute/sharp angles in a circuit.
They trap acid during the PCB etching process, allowing the acid to build up in the angle’s nook hence the name.
The angle retains the acid in the corner for longer, causing the acid to eat away faster than it should.
As a result, the acid can corrode a connection, rendering the circuit inoperable and resulting in more serious issues later.
Insufficient Copper-To-Edge Clearance
Copper is a highly conductive metal that is utilized as an active component in printed circuit boards. However, copper is a soft metal prone to corrosion, requiring additional materials as cover to avoid corrosion and interaction with environment.
When you trim a refrigerator PCB with copper too close to the edge, you can remove a portion of the covering.
You expose the copper layer beneath this way jeopardizing the board’s operation.
The exposed copper planes can establish contact with one another or by touching a conductive material resulting in a short.
The copper is also under the mercy of environment elements, rendering it susceptible to corrosion.
You can also suffer the risk of coming into contact with the refrigerator PCB and suffering an electric shock.
Slivers are little wedges of copper or solder mask that form during the PCB manufacturing process during the etching process.
Slivers can pose significant complications during fabrication of the refrigerator circuit board.
These slivers can link to other copper pieces or disclose copper plating that would otherwise be hidden by the solder mask.
The former issue can result in a short, resulting in a faulty circuit board.
The latter alternative can lead to copper corrosion over time. You find both of these issues shorten the refrigerator circuit board’s lifespan.
Thermals are short traces that run around pads and attach them to the plane.
These thermals help the pads to spread heat more effectively and are crucial components in the soldering process.
However, cavities between the thermal and the remainder of the plane or the pad, can sometimes result in an incomplete connection.
You observe this limits the effectiveness of the heat transmission system created by these thermals hence affect functionality.
Heat transfer from pads to the rest of the plane takes substantially longer with starved thermals.
This can create a problem for you during soldering or when the circuit is under heat stress.
A thermal pad with poor heat transfer may solder irregularly taking an unusually long time to reflow, slowing the assembly process.
Circuit boards with starved thermals may experience insufficient heat transfer after manufacture, making them more susceptible to overheating and thermal damage.
Missing Solder Mask Between Pads
The solder mask is a layer that sits on top of the copper layer on the circuit board.
You apply solder mask to the copper layer to protect the traces from contact with other metals, solder, and conductive bits.
It also functions as a buffer between the copper and the environment, protecting handlers from electrocution and avoiding corrosion.
Pads are the metal sections of the solder board that are left exposed for components to be soldered to.
The solder mask may be partially or fully absent between pads on some circuit boards.
As a result, you expose more copper than is necessary, which can lead to solder bridges forming between pins during assembly.
This can result in a short as well as a reduction in corrosion protection.
You find both of these situations can have a detrimental impact on the refrigerator circuit board’s performance and longevity.
Can You Employ Surface Finish On A Refrigerator PCB?
Copper is a soft metal that is easily susceptible to weathering and corrosion.
PCB surface finishes allow you to protect the copper trace from environmental elements and corrosion.
You can employ the following surface finishes for the trace on your refrigerator PCB:
Types of PCB surface finish
HASL (Hot Air Solder Levelling)
HASL is a solder material with lead and tin components you use to create a surface finish.
This is the least expensive surface finish that you can find and hence it is widely used.
You submerge the conductive traces on the printed circuit board in liquid solder during hot air solder leveling.
You then use a stream of hot air directed perpendicular to the board to level the solder.
Immersion tin is the chemical stacking of tin ions on a copper trace on a PCB board.
As a result, you form a single coat of tin over the conductive design capable of minor board attachments.
When it comes to the immersion surface finish, you discover that tin has the lowest cost requirement.
It also responds astonishingly well to the soldering process, while accommodating modest board attachments.
You chemically deposit a silver coating over the copper design to generate a homogeneous layer in immersion silver.
While the compatibility of copper and silver is better than that of copper and tin, silver tarnishes when exposed to air.
As a result, airtight packaging is required for PCBs with immersion silver plating.
ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold)
ENIG is a nickel-gold combination surface finish that you obtain via electroless plating and immersion. This surface finish produces a great surface result, which you may attribute to the high cost of achieving it.
The nickel application and gold immersion are the two phases in the ENIG process.
To prevent the nickel from succumbing to a reaction with ambient oxygen, you coat gold over it.
OSP (Organic Solderability Preservative)
This finish is organic and water-based, as the name implies.
The OSP finish clings effectively to the copper surface, providing efficient corrosion protection while providing a good soldering surface.
You clean the copper to ensure it is free of impurities before applying OSP. Before rinsing, you utilize chemical agents in a cleaning process.
Following that, you apply an organic solder preservative via a conveyor mechanism to ensure a thin layer. After layering, you deionize the coat with a unique rinse method followed by a curing process before storage.
What Solder Masks Are Available for A Refrigerator PCB?
A solder mask is a protective polymer-based layer you apply over an unpopulated PCB surface preventing issues like solder bridge formation.
You can apply a solder mask via silk-screening, liquid photo-imaging or dry-film photo-imaging.
You commonly find solder mask in green color, however, the solder mask color has insignificant impact on board performance.
However, you find maintaining contrast between the solder mask color and the board traces and spaces is important.
You can customize your solder mask color with other popular color options such as red, black, blue, yellow and white common.
Is A Silkscreen Layer Important On A Refrigerator PCB?
A silkscreen layer is an informative layer you find atop a PCB that provides reference indicators for component placement during assembly.
A silkscreen layer includes printed texts and graphics usually in a white colour but not always.
Having a silkscreen layer on a refrigerator PCB is important for the following reasons:
- During assembly or population, the PCB silkscreen identifies points positioning components on the board.
- Engineers and PCB workers can readily locate test points on the board surface when using a PCB silkscreen.
When collecting measurements and troubleshooting, test points come in handy.
- You find information such as current and voltage values provided by the PCB silkscreen offer warnings from shock and damage.
- A silkscreen layer on a refrigerator PCB acts as a reference indicator for establishing component positioning.
Additionally, the silkscreen layer allows you to identify polarities.
- The refrigerator PCB silkscreen provides you precise component values such as resistor values, transistor values, and capacitor values.
As a result, you don’t have to worry about mismatching such components.
Do Refrigerator PCBs Have Vias?
Where you have more than one conductive layer on your refrigerator PCB, you can employ Vias.
Vias are plated through-holes on a circuit board that you find useful in electrical or thermal transfer between layers.
There are three types of vias you can find in a printed circuit board: through-hole vias, blind vias and buried vias.
Types of vias
You can only find buried vias in circuit boards with layer counts of four or more.
Buried vias are invisible from the outer layers while through-hole vias cuts through the board hence visible from both outer layers.
The blind via is visible form only one outer surface, either top or bottom.
The drilling technique is crucial in the creation of blind and buried vias.
Drilling is a fabrication technique that involves punching holes in a PCB’s conductive layers and cores.
You make these drilled holes conductive by metalizing their inner walls.
Laser drilling guided by depth is impractical for creating blind and buried vias; instead, you drill the layers and cores individually.
You can layer and drill multiple plates and cores by stacking them and compacting upon completion of each drill process.
Using blind and buried vias on refrigerator circuit boards has primarily allowed for larger density without increasing board size.
What Drilling Techniques Can You Use For Vias On Your Refrigerator PCB?
We’ve highlighted the importance of drilling in creation of vias as it allows you to create paths through PCB layers.
You can employ different drilling approaches to create holes for fabrication as vias.
You can employ the following techniques during the drilling process:
- Numerical Machine Controlled (NMC) drilling which involves use of programmable machines to drive the drill bits.
- Ultra Violet (UV) drilling which is a complex approach employing advanced tech.
- Laser drilling which employs light amplification by the simulated emission of radiation to bore through the PCB.
Is Edge Plating Applicable On A Refrigerator PCB?
The metallization of the sides of a printed circuit board across its height is PCB edge plating.
You can carry out edge plating on only one of the board’s edges or all of them.
Edge plating in a refrigerator PCB provides the board with a strong connection and rigidity.
As a result, you’ll discover that edge-plated boards are less prone to various board failures.
To overcome the obstacles of placing the plating, the edge plating technique necessitates meticulous attention to detail.
You’ll need specialized equipment and good abilities to adequately complete an edge plating technique.
Before you plate a PCB edge, you have to carefully handle and prepare the edges for plating cohesiveness.
For the duration of the board’s operation, the plating must remain attached to the edge.
Furthermore, monitor the edge plating soldering process to avoid damaging the interlayer through-hole connections.
The technique is given the utmost attention in order to avoid the production of burrs which can cause catastrophic board failure.
What Design Rule Checks Are Applicable For A Refrigerator PCB?
A design rule check comprises some methods that govern the activity of PCB designing.
The following are some of the steps involved in executing a design rule check:
- Confirming the establishment of appropriate signal routes based on track length and input and output sources that are separate.
- Identifying the parameters for consideration as power and ground lines, as well as the type of coupling.
- You establish different ground lines for usage with PCBs that contain both digital and analog components.
Identifying the integrity of a PCB’s signals and determining the ideal arrangement for optimal performance.
- Ensuring the appropriate conductive track features, including width and thickness, are selected.
- Detecting mistakes and problems in the PCB and its board, particularly in the areas of unwanted connections and isolations.
- Examining the quality of fabrication processes like lamination, soldering, and assembly.
How Important Are The Glass Transition And Decomposition Temperatures For A Refrigerator PCB?
The glass transition temperature (Tg) is a temperature range in which the physical condition of the PCB’s substrate material changes.
As the material links weaken, the material transitions from a strong solid to a soft slippery condition.
When temperatures drop below Tg, the material often returns to its original state.
You measure glass transition temperature in degrees Celsius or Centigrade.
When a PCB material reaches a specific temperature, it initiates chemical degradation.
This temperature is the breakdown temperature (Td) which toy measure in degrees Celsius.
During breakdown, a PCB substrate material might lose up to a twentieth of its weight.
When the substrate reaches Td, unlike Tg, where the alteration is reversible, the transformation is permanent.
glass transition temperature
As a result, most materials including refrigerator PCBs, have a Td greater than Tg.
What Are the Flammability Guidelines for Materials in A Refrigerator PCB?
You measure the flame retardancy of a PCB material by its flammability.
It is a safety element due to the possibility of heat events on a printed circuit board such as a refrigerator PCB.
During material testing, you employ the following rules ensuring the material in a refrigerator PCB meets the established flammability standards:
- When subjected to a flame test, the material you use for a refrigerator PCB should not combust for more than 10 seconds.
- You have to employ five different samples of the same material in the flame test.
The whole time of combustion should not exceed fifty seconds in this case.
- While burning up, the flame’s ball should not be so enormous that it reaches the handle.
- The burning sample should not have material dropping off while burning.
Additionally, the combusting particles need not inflame a dry cotton ball half a foot below.
- The material part should not burn for more than thirty seconds when lit repeatedly using a flame test.