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What should consider when choose the PCB TG?
The Tg value refers to the glass transition temperature of CORE, which you can understand as the softening temperature of the sheet.
For designers, the selection of the Tg value of the PCB depends on the working temperature or environmental conditions of the PCB of the product involved. Here we must first talk about the types of common Tg values:
1. 135-140 degrees Celsius, which is the Tg value of common FR-4 sheets;
2. About 170 degrees Celsius, this is the Tg value of the sheet of FR-4 high temperature ladder;
3. About 260 degrees Celsius, this is the Tg value of polyimide material;
What impact does PCB TG have on the printed circuit boards?
The larger the Tg value is, the lower the degree of cross-linking reaction between the polymer molecules is, and the more polar groups exist in the sheet, which makes the sheet extremely easy to absorb water.
The more water the PCB board absorbs, when the customer does the thermal shock test, the board will often burst, resulting in serious reliability problems.
The larger the TG value, the more likely the hole is thick, the copper is thrown away, and the quality of the plated through hole is also deteriorated during the drilling process, because the thermal expansion of the insufficiently cured resin changes greatly, and the corner of the hole is prone to breakage.
How to choose the right TG value of double-sided PCB board?
The selection of TG value is inextricably linked to the product. Some products have low requirements for TG value, while some products have high requirements.
This depends on what the product itself is used for and what its primary working environment is. If it is a general For consumer electronic products, those with low temperature requirements, you can choose the general TG value.
The higher the TG point, the higher the temperature requirements of the plate during pressing, and the pressed plate will be harder and brittle, which will affect the quality of the mechanical drilling in the subsequent process and the electrical characteristics during use to a certain extent.
Venture PCB TG
The higher of Tg, the better the performance of PCB heat resistance, moisture resistance, chemical resistance, stability and other characteristics.
When the working temperature reaches the melting point, that means the temperature exceeds the Tg value, the status of PCB material will be changed from glassy to liquid, which will affect the function of PCB. And this value is related to the stability of the PCB dimension.
We manufacture PCB TG that has a good performance. We have strong technical background and developed many high-tech products widely used around the world. We have also products that has a lightweight construction, increased durability, and enhanced flexibility.
Venture: Your Best PCB TG Supplier in China
Venture Electronics is a trusted and reliable manufacturer of a PCB TG in China. We can offer you the best quality PCB TG that are widely used in many applications.
We e manufacture different types of PCB TG. We produce PCB TG as follows:
Venture PCB TG is a popular high value for your PCB. If you use PCB TG, then the maximum working temperature should be work good.
As a leading manufacturer in China, we have been designing PCB TG to improve moisture resistance, chemical resistance, heat resistance, and stability resistance of your circuit board.
Venture PCB TG produces better temperature resistance of the sheet.
Whether you are looking for an excellent quality PCB TG material, Venture is always the best place. We have been manufacturing PCB TG for more than 10 years.
In fact, we are supplying a large number of PCB TG for different companies throughout the world.
When it comes to PCB TG material, Venture has a lot to offer. Venture PCB TG manufacturer and suppliers will be your reliable one-stop solution based on your specifications.
For more than 10 years, we became the best PCB TG solution provider in China. As a professional manufacturer, we can provide unmatched customer services and unmatched products.
We have the best delivery conditions along with price, speed, and possibilities. Venture Electronics is indeed your best PCB TG solution provider!
Contact us for more information about our PCB TG!
PCB TG: The Ultimate FAQs Guide
Before you fabricate a printed circuit board, PCB TG is a critical factor you must consider.
This guide explores all the critical elements you need to know about PCB TG.
So if you have any questions on PCB TG, you will find the answer right here.
Let’s dive right in.
- What is a Printed Circuit Board TG?
- What is the Significance of the PCB TG?
- What Happens During the Printed Circuit Board Glass Transition Temperature?
- How Do You Test the Glass Transmission Temperature of Printed Circuit Boards?
- What is High Glass Transition Temperature of the Printed Circuit Boards?
- What are the Typical Applications of High Glass Transition Temperature of Printed Circuit Boards?
- What is the Significance of the Value of Glass Transition Temperature on Printed Circuit Boards?
- What are the Main Properties of the High Glass Transition Temperature of PCB Materials?
- What are the Technical Options for High Tg Printed Circuit Boards?
- Which Types of Printed Circuit Boards Depend on the Glass Transition Temperatures?
- What Really Happens to the PCB During the Glass Transition Temperatures?
- What is the Measurement of Tg of the Printed Circuit Board?
- What is the Difference Between Glass Transition Temperature and Melting Temperature?
- Why Do Different PCB Materials Have Different Glass Transition Temperatures?
- What is the Difference Between PCB TG and PCB TM?
- What is the Information of the Printed Circuit BoardTgImplying?
- How Does Crystallinity affect the Glass Transition Temperature?
- Which Techniques Do You Use to Obtain the Glass Transition Temperature of PCBs?
- What are the Other Methods for Measuring of the PCB Glass Transition Temperature?
- Which Factors Affect the Tg of Printed Circuit Boards?
- Can You Change the Tg of the Printed Circuit Board Materials?
What is a Printed Circuit Board TG?
Glass transition temperature is the maximum temperature at which the printed circuit board will become mechanically unstable.
High TG PCB
What is the Significance of the PCB TG?
Tg of PCB is a value in degree centigrade units that will guarantee mechanical stability of printed circuit boards.
In other words, it is the maximum temperature that you should never exceed when operating a printed circuit board.
In case you exceed the Tg of PCB, the mechanical form of the printed circuit board will change.
It will help in maintaining the printed circuit boards’ solid state before it changes from the solid glass or crystalline state.
It will assist in the designing of the mechanical properties of the PCB by looking at the properties of the material.
With knowledge of PCB Tg, you will prevent isotropic expansion, hysteresis, as well as dimensional changes upon PCB material cooling.
Apart from that, it will help you work within a particular temperature range during the lamination of the printed circuit boards.
In a nutshell, it will help in maintaining the total stability of the PCB to eliminate possibilities of damages.
What Happens During the Printed Circuit Board Glass Transition Temperature?
The glass transition temperature is one of the most important factors to consider on the printed circuit boards.
You will note that everything on the PCB is normal and solid while working within the glass transition temperature.
As soon as the glass transition temperature goes beyond the normal, it will change from the usual hard and glassy material.
You will note the printed circuit board transitioning from the hard, glassy material to a soft, and rubbery material.
Apart from that, it will help in making the printed circuit board flame resistant.
In other words, it will prevent the burning of the PCB at high temperatures but only change the state from hard to soft.
As soon as you see the PCB changing form, then you will realize that the glass transition temperature is achieved.
How Do You Test the Glass Transmission Temperature of Printed Circuit Boards?
Well, you may wonder how you will get the right glass transition temperature of the printed circuit board.
You will use the PCB Tg test under the ASTM E-1356 method to test the glass transition temperature of PCB.
This is the standard method that you will apply in testing and assigning printed circuit boards with the right glass transition temperature.
It involves the use of differential scanning calorimetry to assign the printed circuit board with the right glass transition temperature.
It will use differential scanning calorimetry to provide rapid test methods for the determination of change under particular heat capacities.
Usually, you will perform the tests over specific heat capacities ranging from -120 to 500 degrees centigrade.
You should note that the temperature range may vary depending on the method of differential scanning calorimetry that you use.
As the temperature of materials rise, you will see glass transition temperature manifested over specific heat capacities.
This test will also provide you with details about the PCB thermal history, stability, processing conditions, and chemical reaction progress.
Apart from that, you will also have the opportunity of observing the electrical as well as mechanical behavior of PCBs.
You will not only determine the glass transition temperature but have specification acceptance and quality control.
You must also stay within the ISO 11357-2 standards as the most equivalent method of operation and testing.
What is High Glass Transition Temperature of the Printed Circuit Boards?
Usually, you may operate the printed circuit boards under very high temperatures or expose them to high thermal loads.
In this case, you will have to determine the necessary long-term operating temperatures early enough.
Early determination of the operating temperature will assist you in a selection of the most appropriate material of the PCB.
High glass transition temperature, therefore, is the value of temperature for base materials that change state under very high temperatures.
In other words, any glass transition temperature that goes beyond 170 degrees centigrade is a high glass transition temperature.
What are the Typical Applications of High Glass Transition Temperature of Printed Circuit Boards?
Well, with knowledge of the typical value of high glass transition temperatures, you can perform proper function referencing.
In other words, you can use the value of the high glass transition temperature of PCBs to determine specific applications.
Here are some of the typical applications of the high Tg.
Multilayer Printed Circuit Boards
You will use the high glass transition temperature to determine the maximum operating temperature of multiple layer printed circuit boards.
Usually, most industrial applications work under very high-temperature conditions.
You ought to understand the value of high Tg of PCBs to help in the determination of the right materials for industrial electronics.
As you operate your automobile, there are instances when the temperatures within the operating environment increase to very high levels.
To prevent this, you need to select proper materials for such appliances based on the high Tg of PCBs.
Fineline Trace Structures
In fine line trace structures, you will use the knowledge of high glass transition temperature to avoid material damages.
You will be operating well within the temperature range to avoid the possibility of causing unwanted damages.
Obviously, you will definitely have electronics that work under very high-temperature conditions.
In such a case, you will select the most appropriate materials for such electronics by referring to the high glass transition temperature.
What is the Significance of the Value of Glass Transition Temperature on Printed Circuit Boards?
You will depend on the value of glass transition temperature to determine quite a number of things.
It is a significant normative dimension for base materials that will inform of the right temperature of resin matrix conversion.
You will depend on this value to determine the temperature where materials change from glassy brittle conditions to soft elastic conditions.
You will set the upper boundary where the resin matrix begins to decompose with the value of Tg.
Apart from that, you will also use the value of glass transition temperature to determine the point where delamination occurs.
It is, therefore, the temperature where the material endures the high heat for a particularly short period.
What’s more, it will help you work within the most efficient guidelines for operating different electronics.
Usually, the guidelines state that you have to operate the electronics 25 degrees centigrade below the PCB Tg value.
What are the Main Properties of the High Glass Transition Temperature of PCB Materials?
During the selection process of the PCB materials, you will have to look at the main properties.
Here are some of the properties of high glass transition temperature you ought to consider in advance.
High Glass Flow Temperature Value (Tg)
First, you must know the glass transition temperature value of the materials that you intend to use.
In case any of the materials do not meet the right threshold, you will have to eliminate them completely.
High Temperature Durability
In addition to the value of the PCB Tg, you will have to understand the endurance of the materials.
Despite the fact that a material meets the threshold of Tg, you must take care of the durability period as well.
Long Delamination Durability
You should also look at the period the material will take before the delamination process begins to take effect.
It is important to ensure that the period is long enough to serve the purpose of the PCB in different applications.
Low Z-Axis Expansion (CTE)
It is also very important to look at the coefficient of thermal expansion on the Z-axis which should below.
In other words, you have to maintain very low coefficients of thermal expansion of materials to avoid deformation of PCBs.
What are the Technical Options for High Tg Printed Circuit Boards?
Depending on the materials you have at hand, you may have other options of technical equivalence for high TG PCBs.
Here are some of the technical alternatives that you can have for the high transition temperatures printed circuit boards.
- Printed Circuit Boards with numerous layers adding up to 48 layers
- Finest line or very thin lines starting from 75µm
- Film-Free Lasers that you can use for direct imaging (LDI)
- Micro-vias with very thin vias starting at about 75µm
- Buried and Blind Vias
- Laser Vias
- Tenting of Vias
- Plugging and filling of Vias
- Plated Half-holes
- Thin Laminates with very thin lines starting from about 50µm core
- Custom Layer Buildups depending on customer specifications.
- Sandwich Buildup
- Plated Slots
- Thick Copper Conductor Materials up to 450µm
- Printed Circuit Board with thicknesses up to 7mm
- Depth Milling on the Z axis
- Back drill
- Control of Impedance
- Solder-Stops that have special coatings and colors
- AluminiumCore that has plated contacts
- Peelable solder-stops
Which Types of Printed Circuit Boards Depend on the Glass Transition Temperatures?
Well, you will use the value of high glass transition temperature across every type of printed circuit boards.
In other words, it will come in handy on selection of materials for every type of printed circuit boards.
Here are the printed circuit boards which depend heavily on the glass transition temperature.
- Flexible Printed Circuit Boards as well as the plated-through PCBs)
- Rigid-Flex Printed Circuit Boards
- High-Frequency Printed Circuit Boards
- High Glass Transition Temperature Printed Circuit Boards (that exhibit resistance to high temperatures)
- Metal-Core Printed Circuit Boards (as well as plated-through PCBs)
- Thick Copper PCBs
- Rigid Printed Circuit Boards
- Single Layer Printed Circuit Boards
- Multi-layer Printed Circuit Boards
Heavy Copper PCB
What Really Happens to the PCB During the Glass Transition Temperatures?
PCB Tg is a phenomenon that will take place on the amorphous polymers with chains in a disorderly arrangement.
Usually, when you change or vary the temperatures considerably over a certain period, you are bound to experience change.
When you cool the amorphous polymers, it will become so hard and brittle just like glass materials.
On the other hand, when you heat the amorphous polymers above the glass transition temperature, the strewn around polymers will start moving.
It will change its state from being hard and brittle like glass to a softer and rubber like material.
Implying that, under warm temperatures, the polymer chains have the ability to move around more easily.
So, above the Tg, you can easily bend the material as the polymers will move freely to a different location.
Implying that, it will provide the right space for the bending stress that you will apply on the materials.
On the flip side, when you bend the materials under glass transition temperature, the polymers will remain put.
The amorphous polymers will not move into other directions to provide space for the bending stress you are applying.
In this case, there are two outcomes that will happen to your material under the glass transition temperature.
First, the polymers may create a very strong bond to resist or fight the force you apply on it thus remaining constant.
Second, the polymers may give in to the force if the force is high enough to create a break on the PCB materials.
What is the Measurement of Tg of the Printed Circuit Board?
The values of glass transition temperature usually vary depending on the type of materials that you are using.
It can be high if the Tg is above the 170 degrees centigrade mark or low if it is below the mark.
The best way you can use to determine Tg of the PCB is by measuring using differential scanning calorimetry.
What is the Difference Between Glass Transition Temperature and Melting Temperature?
You might confuse the Tgof materials with the melting point of materials.
Implying that, glass transition temperature and melting temperature are two different things all together.
Melting temperature is a term that you will use when referring to temperature changes and the behavior of crystalline polymers.
It will occur when the crystalline polymers’ chains leave and fall out of the normal polymer crystalline structure.
The result that comes after achieving the melting temperature is a change from solid to a disordered liquid.
You should also note that the melting temperature is more dependent on the bonding strength of the crystalline molecules.
On the other hand, glass transition temperature is a transition that will happen only to amorphous polymers.
These are polymers with chains that do not have the right order of crystalline structure.
Instead, the polymers are strewn around in a disorderly fashion but still remain in its solid-state.
In case you go beyond the glass transition temperature, the amorphous polymers move around more easily.
This makes the materials soft and gives in to force but it does not change from solid to a liquid state.
Apart from the amorphous polymers, you can also observe glass transition on semi-crystalline compounds depending on the chemical structure.
Why Do Different PCB Materials Have Different Glass Transition Temperatures?
You will note that different materials have different glass transition temperatures due to their composition or makeup.
In other words, the composition of amorphous polymers varies from one material to another.
There are materials that have very strong bonds between the amorphous polymers while others are very weak.
Due the polymer bond strength, you will realize that there is a great difference between the Tg of different materials.
What is the Difference Between PCB TG and PCB TM?
PCB Tg is an abbreviation that stands for the glass transition temperature of the printed circuit board.
At this temperature, you will note that the glass state of the PCB material changes into a soft and rubbery state.
It is the most logic explanation that you can give to the transition that happens on the thermosetting polymers.
On the other hand, PCB TM stands for the melting temperature that occurs on the PCB material polymers.
At the PCB TM, crystalline phase of polymers will change into a solid and amorphous phase.
It is quite different from the usual melting where the solid phase will change into a liquid phase.
What is the Information of the Printed Circuit BoardTgImplying?
The information on Tg of printed circuit boards tells when the state of thermoset polymer changes.
Implying that, it will inform you of the right temperature when the thermoset polymer will change from rigid to flexible.
It will also provide you with information that will answer questions on:
- Nature of the PCB material when in the normal service temperature
- Nature of the PCB material in its normal state glassy and rigid at normal temperature?
- Whether the polymer making the PCB material rubbery and flexible at higher temperatures
Normally, most thermoset polymers at room temperature are in the state of amorphous solids.
Apart from that, it also has a random arrangement of polymers and not a repeating arrangement of polymer chains.
Rigid Printed Circuit Board
How Does Crystallinity affect the Glass Transition Temperature?
Glass transition temperatures usually affect the amorphous polymers of the PCB materials.
You may have PCB materials with different degrees of crystallinity on them.
In such a case, glass transition temperature has no effect or cannot explain the changes occurring on the crystals.
In other words, you will have to refer to the melting temperature to explain the changes that occur on material crystals.
Apart from that, the transition in crystal arrangement changes from solid to liquid state which glass transition cannot explain.
Which Techniques Do You Use to Obtain the Glass Transition Temperature of PCBs?
There are quite a number of techniques that you can employ to explain or obtain the right glass transition temperature.
Here are the main techniques that you can use to determine the glass transition temperature.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
You may opt to use this method since it is the most traditional method for testing or determining glass transition temperatures.
This technique employs heat flow methods while comparing the test sample to the amount of heat you will supply.
After that, you will have to perform mathematical calculations which will determine the right value of glass transition temperature.
Thermal Mechanical Analysis
You will use this method especially when you are determining the coefficient thermal expansion of different materials.
In case you use it to measure glass transition temperature, you will have to take a different mechanical approach.
It involves measure of expansion of the materials under heat where calculation using onset technique is taken and graphs depicted.
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
You can also opt for the most sensitive technique of glass transition temperature analysis.
Here, you will measure and record the response of materials to changes in the applied forces.
Apart from that, you will relate the response of the measurement to behavior under different temperature and frequency conditions.
What are the Other Methods for Measuring of the PCB Glass Transition Temperature?
You may wonder if the above testing methods are the only methods for testing glass transition temperature.
Of course, they are not the only methods but the most common and advanced methods of testing glass transition temperature.
Here are the other methods that you can explore when testing the glass transition temperature.
- Specific Heat Measurement Technique
- Thermo-Mechanical Analysis Technique
- Thermal Expansion Measurement Technique
- Micro-Heat-Transfer Measurement Technique
- Isothermal Compressibility Technique
- Heat Capacity Technique
Which Factors Affect the Tg of Printed Circuit Boards?
Glass transition temperature acts on a number of factors which affect the overall behavior and outcome.
Here are the main factors that will determine the behavior of glass transition temperature of PCBs.
Chemical Structure of Materials
The chemical structure of the polymer or material usually affects the glass transition temperature of the materials.
Here, there are quite a number of factors that you will look at such as:
An increase in molecular weight of different materials will lead to an increase inTg of the PCB.
Inflexible, and bulky side groups decrease mobility and results in an increase in the Tg of materials.
An increase in chemical cross-linking will lead to a decrease in free volume and mobility thus increasing Tg of PCB.
The availability of polar groups on the PCB leads to a decrease in volume and subsequent increase in glass transition temperature.
The flexibility of materials affects the PCB Tg in such a way where an increase in flexibility decreases Tg.
Rigid vs. Flexible PCB
Presence of Plasticizers
The presence of plasticizers leads to an increase in the free volume of the polymers thus leading to a decrease in Tg.
Moisture or Water Content
Increasing the water content or moisture content of PCB materials leads to a decrease in the PCB Tg.
Free Volume and Pressure
Increasing pressure often decreases the volume thus leading to an increase in the glass transition temperatures.
Can You Change the Tg of the Printed Circuit Board Materials?
Yes, you can change the Tg of the PCB through a number of different techniques.
One of the techniques that assist in this transformation is changing the materials of the PCB.
A change of materials will help in changing the material history hence a change in the glass transition temperature.
Apart from that, you can use the thermal treatment technique which will also change the glass transition temperature.
I hope this guide did answer all your questions on PCB TG.
In case you have an inquiry or additional questions we did not cover here – the Venture Electronics team is ready to help.
Contact Venture team electronics now.