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Long Circuit Board: The Ultimate FAQ Guide

In this guide, you will find all information you’re looking for about long circuit boards.

Whether you want to know the best material, design or features; this guide covers everything you need about long circuit boards.

Take a look.

What Is A Long Circuit Board?

The majority of standard PCB lengths are normally below 450 mm.

 long circuit board

Long circuit board

A long circuit board is a PCB whose length is over 650 mm and can reach up to 5000 mm.

What Are The Applications Of Long Circuit Board?

Long circuit boards find their application in the following areas:

  • Global Positioning Systems [GPS] technology
  • Microwave
  • Small cells
  • Automotive industry
  • Marine industry
  • Heart monitors
  • Mobile phones
  • Data storage
  • Signal transmission
  • Medical equipment

What Challenges Will You Encounter When Fabricating A Long Circuit Board?

When making a long circuit board, you will encounter a myriad of challenges that are not available when making regular printed circuit boards.

Some of these challenges entail the following:

Fabrication Of More Layers

Manufacturers for long circuit boards will encounter a circuit board count on the layers by CMs.

Besides, this will rely on the capacity of their manufacturing.

Some of the specific skills range from 2 to 4 layers, 6 to 10 layers, and 12 layers and above.

The manufacturer needs to be a specialist if the long circuit board will have more layer counts.

This means the manufacturing process of the long circuit board will slow down.

Long Circuit Board With Quick Response

Not all manufacturing providers are equipped to handle high-volume production.

Fast-turn sheet manufacturing that will be slowed by the printed circuit board technology include the following:

  1. High-speed development
  2. Voltage control copper widths
  3. Copper density for the trails

If any of these issues are more significant than good practices, backboard efficiency will be further hampered.

Extra Cost

Printed circuit boards are manufactured on plates.

Besides, you can lower the manufacturing cost of every printed circuit board when you acquire the panel responsibility.

Also, since long circuit boards cannot fit within the conventional sizes, you will end up paying extra on the flat fraction.

Several Connections

When there are many adapters within the backplane, more work is necessary to generate and engage with the firmware update.

Typically, the testing mount must contact all adapter points.

This is to completely evaluate and certify the fabrication activities of the long circuit board.

With a large number of electrical contacts on the side, it will add to lengthier test periods.

Thermal Effect

The density and volume of irrigation, and power programs for improving the capacity, may have a temperature impact on solder joining operations.

As a result, the more copper on the chassis, the higher the heat and corrosion requirements.

This might make the connection heat treatment design tuning take longer than normal.

What Quality Standards Should A Long Circuit Board Comply With?

Quality standards ensure that the long circuit board is safe to use and will meet the client’s standards.

It is therefore vital for long circuit boards to comply with a set of international, national, and regional quality standards.

Some of the quality standards that long circuit boards need to comply with entail the following:

  • CE standard
  • ISO 140001
  • IATF 16949-2016
  • SIO 13485
  • UL certification
  • RoHS

How Will You Manufacture A Long Circuit Board?

The manufacturer of the long circuit board starts by making the input boards due to all necessary data and design information.

Besides, you can make a myriad of long circuit boards from flexible to multi-layer long PCBs.

Here are the manufacturing steps for a long circuit board:

Designing The Circuitry

The first step to manufacturing a long circuit board entails the conversion of the digital image.

These images are from the database of the long circuit board designers and are given to the panel by the CM.

The digital image data will appear as a Gerber file, even though you may use other systems.

Afterward, you will move the image to a circuit board using one of the following methods:

  1. Standard imaging

This is a method that has been in existence for a long time in the production of printed circuit boards.

Here, you will use a photo plotter to make film photo circuits.

These will form guides during the manufacture of long circuit boards when printing images on screens.

  1. Laser prints

This laser will print the image on the circuit board thereby replacing photo tools that you may require.

Besides, they are beneficial over video since no misalignments occur.

Also, you need not conduct frequent rehabilitation when replacing bad films.

However, it is expensive since you need to scan each layer independently.

Layering The Circuit Board

Many layers of dielectric composition and copper conductors make up a list of co-circuit boards.

Wedged amid layers of copper wire are sheet compositions of altered epoxy and FR-4.

Although various insulators can be used, the most common core material for PCB production is FR-4.

Split-screen multi-layer circuit boards employ a smaller version of the same fundamental structure as double-layer boards and chipboard.

For a high-quality result, each layer’s depth, mass, and layer-to-level orientation should all be rigorously controlled.

Internal Layers

The initial step entails printing the photo circuits in the inner layers when fabricating long circuit boards.

Copper sheets at the center have a photographic film foil that will protect them.

Afterward, you will expose the photoresist to UV light using camera tools or scanning using electron beams.

Trails and patches on copper areas remain open due to the design and they will cause the picture resistor to harden.

Afterward, you will eliminate this malleable and unprotected area from copper using some chemicals.

The next step entails revealing the copper layer which has a cover of a functional photomask.

Finally, you will remove the photoresist and leave behind the copper circuit.

Once you accomplish these steps, you will conduct an automatic optical inspection to check for any flaws.

Only after passing this test can you laser engrave it on the whole long circuit board.

Drilling Holes

When manufacturing a long circuit board, you will drill many holes through the printed circuit board.

The holes will serve several purposes, such as installing various components.

Another reason to drill holes is to ensure that all the layers align with one another, which is important for multilayer long circuit boards.

You can choose laser drilling PCB or mechanical drilling PCB.

Silk-screening

Fiber printing and soldering are the final two phases you will conduct during the fabrication of long circuit boards.

The soldering mask sits above the long circuit board and will protect the copper layer from shorts and corrosion.

Also, you will print vital information about the board and the components on this layer.

The print information may include icons, titles, component identification, etc.

Testing The Bare Board

This entails testing the board for any flaws or errors via electrical tests.

If the board passes this stage, you can proceed to assemble the components.

Assembly Process

In this phase, you will feed the board into a functional long board.

Here, you will install the components either through surface mount technology or thru-hole technology.

How Does A Long Circuit Board Operate?

Long circuit boards have various electrical parts that assist in their functionality.

Some standard versions have a plastic board that is covered in fiberglass.

The parts of the long circuit board sit on a non-conductive board.

These electrical parts connect to the board via pathways known as traces.

The traces will allow the passing of electric current through the electrical parts.

What Are The Mechanical Properties Of A Long Circuit Board?

These include:

Flexural Strength

This is the capacity of long circuit board dielectric materials to resist breakage in the presence of physical stress.

Density

This is how you will measure the dielectric material of long circuit board density.

Peel Strength

This is the capability of long circuit board layers to form a bond.

Time To Delamination

This is the duration long circuit board dielectric material will resist delamination causing elements.

It will showcase the time it takes for layers in a long circuit board to separate when there is a temperature fluctuation.

What Components Make Up A Long Circuit Board?

The parts of long circuit boards are small electronic devices that ensure the board is functional.

Here are some of the parts you will find in long circuit boards:

  • Inductor

This part will store electric current in form of magnetic energy.

  • Diode

This component will control how electricity flows in the long circuit board.

It performs this task by forcing electricity to flow in a single direction.

  • Battery

This part will supply the long circuit board with power.

  • LED

These are small lights on long circuit boards that offer visual feedback.

  • Switch

Depending on whether it is open or closed, it will block or allow the flow of electric current.

  • Capacitor

This part operates by rapidly holding and releasing electric charges.

  • Resistor

This component will offer resistance and manage the electric current flow.

  • Transistor

This component operates by controlling electrical signals.

  • Integrated circuit [IC]

This chip operates by quickly releasing and holding charge.

What Are Some Circuit Packaging Styles For The Parts Of A Long Circuit Board?

There is a myriad of packaging types for integrated circuits which rely on IC and type of long circuit board.

One method of distinguishing them is through the mounting technique used, for instance, thru-hole, sockets, or surface-mount.

Some common packaging styles include:

Single In-line packages

This packaging style has one row that has connecting pins.

Besides, they are less common as dual in-line packages and are suitable for RAM chips and several resistors containing a shared pin.

Dual In-line packages

These are popular especially in thru-hole for integrated circuits.

DIPs have two rows that are parallel to each other and have electrical pins attachments.

Surface-mount Packages

These are simple to solder and the variations of this package include:

  1. Quad flat package
  2. Small-outline package
  3. Small grid array

What Are The Types Of Long Circuit Boards?

These include:

Single-sided Long Circuit Board

This board has one substrate layer and all parts of the long circuit board are soldered on one side.

 single sided PCB

single sided long circuit board

Double-sided Long Circuit Board

This board has conductive material on both sides of the substrate material.

Also, you can drill holes through the board to allow the connection of parts.

 double sided circuit board

double sided circuit board

Multilayer Long Circuit Board

This board has at least 3 layers in its construction with insulation layers separating each layer.

These insulation layers minimize heat transfer.

multilayer circuit board

multilayer circuit board

Flexible Long Circuit Board

This board allows designers to fit them in small product dimensions.

Besides, they exist as single, double, or multilayer long circuit boards.

 flexible circuit board

flexible circuit board

Rigid Long Circuit Board

This board is suitable for products that will maintain their shape in their entire life.

Besides, you will manufacture rigid long circuit boards using tough substrates that cannot fold.

Rigid-flex Long Circuit Board

This board applies both rigid and flexible materials in its construction.

Besides, it allows fabricators to use less space since you can use both rigid and flexible connections on the same board.

Aluminum-backed Long Circuit Board

This board uses aluminum material and not fiberglass.

Besides, they are suitable for high-power long circuit boards such as LED lights.

High-frequency Long Circuit Board

These long circuit boards can transmit signals which are even 2GHz strong.

Which Layers Are Available In A Long Circuit Board?

Layers within long circuit boards include the following:

Substrate Layer

This is the structural frame that holds all parts of the long circuit board together.

Solder Mask Layer

This layer sits above the copper layer and protects it from environmental elements and shorts.

Laminate Layer

This is the material that will hold all the layers of the long circuit board together.

Silkscreen Layer

This layer gives the long circuit board its distinct color.

Also, you will print information about the long circuit board and components on it.

What Are Some Materials You Can Use When Building A Long Circuit Board?

Here are some materials that you will use during the manufacture of a long circuit board:

  • FR-4

This is a fiberglass material that is water-resistant and flame resistant.

It is common in a long circuit board since they provide a high degree of tensile strength even in lightweight products.

  • Copper

This material will ensure a healthy flow of electric current as it is a good conductor of electricity.

  • PTFE

Teflon laminate is suitable for use in high-speed circuitry.

Besides, PTFE is suited for high-speed long circuit boards as they are highly flexible, strong, and adapt to fluctuating temperatures.

Here is a complete list of all PCB materials.

What Are The Thermal Properties Of A Long Circuit Board?

These include:

Glass Transition Temperature

At this temperature, the long circuit board will start softening.

Ensure that the temperature of the solder mask is greater than the glass transition temperature.

Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion

This will illustrate how long circuit boards will expand when you expose them to hot temperature levels.

Make sure the coefficient of thermal expansion is a low as can be.

Thermal Conductivity

This illustrates the speed at which heat moves within long circuit boards.

Besides, insulators have a low thermal conductivity than conductors.

Decomposition Temperature

At this temperature, the substrates in the long circuit board will decay permanently.

Ensure the decomposition temperature does not exceed the solder mask temperature.

Can You Update An Old Long Circuit Board?

Yes, updating them is a cost-effective route to take and it entails using professionals who will ensure a safe and consistent outcome.

What Are The Steps You Will Undertake When Assembling A Long Circuit Board?

These steps ensure that the whole assembly process is correct, and include the following stages:

  • Applying solder paste

Here, you will place a thin cover of stainless steel where you plan to mount long circuit board parts.

  • Mounting components

In this stage, you will use automatic systems to solder surface-mount components in place.

  • Inspection

This entails using an X-ray scan to inspect the long circuit board for any flaws or defects.

  • Functional test

This entails simulating the long circuit board to ensure that it is fully functional as per the design specifications.

How Does Through-Hole And Surface Mount Compare In Long Circuit Board?

In surface-mount technology, you will place then solder the components directly on the surface of the board.

However, in thru-hole technology, you will use leads through pre-drilled holes to secure the components.

Can You Clean A Long Circuit Board?

Yes, you can use isopropyl alcohol or compressed air to clean the board.

Compressed air entails spraying air via nozzles to eliminate contaminants within the long circuit board.

Isopropyl alcohol entails applying the fluid on the board and using a lint-free piece of cloth to remove contaminants.

How Will You Determine The Price Of A Long Circuit Board Assembly?

The price depends on the following factors:

Mounting Technology

Surface-mount technology takes less time to complete than thru-hole technology.

This means you will spend more on THT since you need laborers.

Quantity

It is affordable to buy all orders once than when purchased in small batches.

Size And Layers

Large long circuit boards cost more than smaller versions.

Lead Time

If you need your orders immediately, you may spend more as manufacturers expedite the fabrication process.

What Are The Electrical Properties Of A Long Circuit Board?

These include:

Surface Resistivity

The capacity of dielectric materials in long circuit boards to resist insulation and electricity.

Electrical Strength

This is the capability of long circuit boards not to experience electrical disruption in Z-direction.

Volume Resistivity

This is the capacity of dielectric materials of long circuit boards to resist insulation or electricity.

Dielectric Constant

Impedance and integrity of signals will affect the electrical efficiency of dielectric materials in long circuit boards.

Dissipation Factor

Long circuit boards will lose minimal power with low tangent loss.

What Surface Finishes Are Available For A Long Circuit Board?

Some PCB surface finishes you can use include the following:

  • Lead-Free Hot Air Solder Leveling [HASL]
  • Immersion/white tin
  • Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold [ENIG]
  • Electrolytic Gold or Nickel
  • Organic Solderability Preservatives [OSP]
  • Immersion silver
  • Electroless Nickel Electroless Palladium Immersion Gold [ENEPIG]

What Will Cause A Long Circuit Board To Fail?

Failure of long circuit boards may be due to one or more of the following:

  • Plating voids
  • Poor soldering
  • Slivers
  • Insufficient clearance between copper and edges
  • Acid traps
  • Starved thermals
  • Pads missing solder mask
  • Poorly fabricated parts

What Are Some Testing Techniques Of  Long Circuit Board?

There are several techniques you can use to test the quality of long circuit boards.

Some of these techniques entail the following:

  • In-circuit testing
  • Automated optical inspection [AOI]
  • Flying probe test
  • X-ray inspection
  • Burn-in testing
  • Functional test

What Are The Chemical Properties Of A Long Circuit Board?

These include:

Flammability Specifications [UL94]

The Standard for Safety of Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances [UL94] rates flame-retardant traits of plastics.

It advises that materials should burn not exceeding 10 seconds.

Moisture Absorption

The ability of dielectric materials of long circuit boards to reject moisture when dipped in liquids.

Besides, the moisture absorption rate of long circuit boards averages 0.01% and 0.20%.

Methylene Chloride Resistance [MCR]

This is the ability of long circuit boards to resist chemicals that will check dielectric resistance to absorption of methylene chloride.

The MCR of dielectrics averages 0.01% and 0.20%.

For all your long circuit boards, contact Venture Electronics now.

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