What is PCB in LED bulb?
What Is an LED PCB? LED stands for light-emitting diode.
An LED printed circuit board is used to mount the diode(s) and power the LED for the application. … Hence, the LED PCB material may be aluminum, which excels at transferring heat away from the board.
Do LED lights have circuit boards?
LEDs are a type of solid-state lighting that converts electricity into light using a semiconductor.
Compared to traditional light bulbs, they reduce energy use by as much as 80% and last up to 25 times longer. … These boards, often called PCBs, are essential to many LED applications.
What does a LED board do?
A LED display is a flat panel display that uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video display.
LED displays are capable of providing general illumination in addition to visual display, as when used for stage lighting or other decorative (as opposed to informational) purposes.
Your Best Led Bulb PCB Design Partner
We are a professional Led Bulb PCB design supplier in China for over 10 years of experience. We provide our valued customers the very preeminent products at the most affordable pricing. Venture can also supply other design that is related to Led Bulb PCB like:
- Aluminum Single Sided Led Bulb PCB
- Driver Led Bulb PCB
- Wedge Round Led Bulb PCB
- Warm White Color Led Bulb PCB
- 12W Led Light Bulb PCB
- Blue Color Led Bulb PCB
Venture Led Bulb PCB is manufactured for different circuit board use. We are a professional Led Bulb PCB manufacturer in China for over 10 years. Venture Led Bulb PCB has outstanding implementation and durability. These can really render multiple flexible circuit board assembly services. It combines the benefit of high strength, outstanding finish, rust resistance, and durable design.
Your Leading Led Bulb PCB Supplier in China
Venture Led Bulb PCB is made under the vigilance of our skillful professionals who prolong all quality standards. It has a process that involves are very important devices for reliable performance. Venture Led Bulb PCB is widely used in different industries. You can use our Led Bulb PCB for printed circuit board and etc. Also, use conveniently our Led Bulb PCB into various applications.
Venture has a main Led Bulb PCB supplying design capacity, we can provide hundreds of Led Bulb PCB every day with our automated production line, so you will always have enough Led Bulb PCB even in peak days. We have some sets of various Led Bulb PCB manufacturing lines and in the Led Bulb PCB fabrication facility. Whether you are in require of a Led Bulb PCB design distributor, retailer, or a custom Led Bulb PCB design factory, Venture is always your most safe choice because we can always accommodate your demands.
We are committed to excellence and our innovations in the Led Bulb PCB are an example of our commitment. Venture is skilled in the greatest Led Bulb PCB design supplier. Our superior units come with full customer support. For value-added experiences, you can rely on us to render you a fair price. We are excited to hear from you.
Venture is the only supplier design that offered lots of related choices like Led Bulb PCB. We will help you with customizing your Led Bulb PCB orders. Venture is experienced in sales industries, we also render an online services website for your online sourcing. So you can buy and update your PCB products and supplies. Because Venture keeps every buyer up to date with our latest product trends in this fast-moving PCB design industry.
If you are in need of a Led Bulb PCB feel free to contact us for assistance.
LED Bulb PCB: The Ultimate FAQs Guide
In this guide, you will find all information you’re looking or about LED bulb PCB.
So, before importing your LED bulbs from China, read this guide.
- What Is LED Bulb PCB?
- What Are The Common Applications Of LED PCB?
- Which Are The Common Substrate Materials For LED Bulb PCB?
- Why Is Metal Core PCB The Most Suitable For LED Light PCB Applications?
- Why Is Aluminum Core LED Bulb PCB Better Than FR-4 LED Bulb PCB?
- Which Are The Different Types Of Aluminum Core LED Bulb PCB Available?
- Which Are The Key Features Of LED PCB Material To Consider During Selection Of Substrate Material?
- Is The Difference Between COB LED PCB And SMD LED PCB?
- What Are The Advantages Of SMD LED Bulb PCB?
- What Are The Main Components Of LED PCB?
- What Is The Recommended Width Of LED Bulb PCB Traces?
- Why Should Ground And Power Tracks Be Wider In LED Bulb PCB?
- Which Are The Types Of LEDs Used In LED PCB?
- Why Should You Avoid Putting Vias Close To SMT Pads When Drilling Vias In LED Bulb PCB?
- How Do You Control Thermal Problems In LED Bulb PCB?
- Does The Solder Mask Color Matter During LED Bulb PCB Manufacturing?
- How Do You Overcome The Common LED Bulb PCB Defects?
- How Do You Repair LED Bulb PCB Assembly?
- How Do You Increase Lumens During Manufacturing Of LED Bulb PCB?
What Is LED Bulb PCB?
LED stands for light emitting diode. An LED bulb PCB is basically an LED that has been soldered to a PCB board.
A featured chip is used to create light when an electrical current passes through it. This method is very effective and saves more energy.
The chip is bonded using a ceramic base and a thermal heat sink.
This is because LED bulb PCBs create a huge volume of heat that is difficult to dissipate using conventional means.
1 LED PCB
What Are The Common Applications Of LED PCB?
Some of the common applications of LED PCB design are:
LED bulb PCBs are often utilized in this industry as LED indicators.
Since most telecommunication equipment emit a huge amount of heat, the led bulb PCB has the ability to transfer heat.
It also preferred in the industry due to its long life and durability.
LED bulb PCBs use in the consumer sector is becoming rife.
LED PCB displays and indicators are more commonly included in products such as televisions, tablets, smartphones and computers.
Due to the heat sensitivity of the consumer electronics, aluminum LED PCBs are preferred because of their heat transfer abilities.
Most main hospital lighting and lighting tools for used in medical examinations and lighting tools use LED PCBs.
They are preferred due to their ability to efficiently transfer heat and their durability.
Consumer lighting is the major consumer of LED PCB.
Their uses widely vary from solar powered lighting to spotlights, lanterns, flashlights and lamps.
From traffic stoplights to vehicles, LED PCBs are widely used in the transport industry.
LED PCBs are used in cars for indicators, car break lights and headlights and on dashboard indicators.
On the traffic platform, LED PCBs are used in for highways, tunnel and street lighting. Traffic lights and traffic signals also make use of LED PCB.
Running lights and air landing lights in the aviation industry rely on LED PCB of lighting.
The LED PCB also has its uses in the indicators and interior lighting of aircrafts.
Which Are The Common Substrate Materials For LED Bulb PCB?
Different applications have different LED bulb PCB designs and components.
These designs determine the nature of the PCB and the type of material used for coating.
The various substrate materials used in LED bulb PCB include;
LED Bulb PCB
LED PCBs made of metal core have efficient heat transfer and are very reliable in various types of applications.
Such LED bulb PCBs have bases that comprise of metals such as copper, aluminum and laminated.
Epoxies are a very common LED bulb PCB substrate. However, it is relatively less durable. Circuits board made of epoxy are not very expensive to manufacture.
This is the most frequently used LED bulb PCB material where the base is made of epoxy and glass.
When it comes to heat transfer, the FR4 is comparatively inefficient in as much as it is fire-retardant.
Why Is Metal Core PCB The Most Suitable For LED Light PCB Applications?
LED light PCB boards tend to have a difficult time cooling down via traditional methods because a high volume of heat is created.
Most LED light PCB applications prefer metal core PCBs because they have an enhanced capability of dissipating heat.
Aluminum is the most preferred metal when fabricating the circuit boards for LEDs.
The aluminum LED light PCB characteristically includes a thermally conductive thin layer of dielectric material.
This material can dissipate and transmit heat with a far much greater effectiveness compared to the traditional rigid PCB.
Metal core PCB
Why Is Aluminum Core LED Bulb PCB Better Than FR-4 LED Bulb PCB?
Here are some of the reasons you need to consider:
Aluminum is very light weight despite it being durable. The resilience of an LED bulb PCB can be improved without adding its weight, a very vital factor when fabricating.
This will not only lighten the end product but also make the handling and eventual shipping much simpler.
This enables efficient handling of large quantities of LED bulb PCBs thus reducing their cost.
Aluminum is easily accessible and refined compared to FR-4 because it can be mines all over the world.
The abundance of aluminum makes it less costly than FR-4.
This results in a less expensive manufacturing process for the aluminum LED bulb PCB.
Better Heat Transfer
When temperatures are consistently high in any electronic, serious damages may occur. This will negatively impact their operations and functionality.
Aluminum contains the best qualities when it comes to heat transfer compared to FR-4.
This is because thermal energy is conducted with ease and transferred away from vital components hence minimizing the thermal damage that affects the LED bulb PCB.
The aluminums heat dissipating abilities have led to increased LED density.
This means that an LED bulb PCB design can allow mounting of several LEDs onto it.
This also ensures a longer operating time because it the LED bulb PCB will operating at very low temperatures compared to FR-4 PCBs.
Aluminum has proven to be sturdier compared to FR-4.
This means that durable and strong material can withstand breakages the manufacturing process stresses are efficiently handled.
The aluminum LED bulb PCB has an improved resistance to the daily handling damages mostly in impact-prone scenarios.
As with the case of recycling aluminum cans, aluminum LED bulb PCBs are also recyclable unlike FR-4 boards.
They are also non-toxic (contain no mercury) meaning getting rid of them is quite easy and environmentally acceptable.
Lower Power Consumption
A high quality aluminum LED bulb PCB has an efficiency of around six to seven times more than that of an FR-4.
On average, regular domestic use of an aluminum LED bulb PCB can reduce he consumption of energy by around 80%.
Unlike FR-4, aluminum shows an implausible stability when it comes to dimension.
When exposed to high temperatures, it neither bends nor expands hence the board components remain unaffected.
Which Are The Different Types Of Aluminum Core LED Bulb PCB Available?
When complex LED bulb PCB constructions are involved, the PCBs aluminum base is pre-drilled then dielectric is used to back-fill it.
It is finally laminated using thermal materials.
Fabricating such an LED bulb PCB is highly intricate and very labor-intensive.
It is created by fusing a non-thermal material to an aluminum base.
The material used is usually a circuit board made out of a conventional FR-4.
Heat is dissipated more efficiently by the LED bulb PCB when these layers are fused together. This also has a significant effect of increasing its rigidity.
The hybrid aluminum LED bulb PCBs are less costly than an entire aluminum product. However, the major disadvantage is that flexibility is lost.
Flexibility and excellent insulation is provided by using polyimide resin and ceramic fillers in this type of LED bulb PCB.
The PCBs remarkable thermal conductivity is however retained.
Such types of PCBs can be fabricated to directly connect where required.
This reduces the eventual cost of the product by eliminating the use of fixtures, cables and connectors.
However, these PCBs tend to retain their position once bent. Their design does not allow them to constantly flex.
This type of LED bulb PCB is usually the best when power supply applications with high performance are required.
These multi-layer PCBs comprise of thermally conductive layers of dielectric.
In as much as they can efficiently sustain high performance, their heat transferring efficiency is less effective.
They are generally used in complex designs for their efficiency in basic heat dissipation.
Rigid LED Bulb PCB
From its name, this kind of PCB is firm unlike the flexible PCB. Its manufacturing includes the use of solid materials.
Such kind of LED bulb PCB are commonly found in computers. They are fabricated in multiple layers.
Which Are The Key Features Of LED PCB Material To Consider During Selection Of Substrate Material?
LED bulb PCB
Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)
An LED bulb PCB material gets soft on exposure to extreme temperatures.
Once the heat is withdrawn, the substrate reverts to its initial state.
The substrate must have a very high glass transition temperature (Tg) in order to withstand extreme temperatures and operate optimally.
Thermal Conductivity (k)
This refers to the heat conductive properties present on an LED bulb PCB substrate.
This property directly links to the heat transfer abilities of the substrate.
A copper layer is the most preferred due to its extremely high levels of thermal conductivity. It conducts heat much faster compared to the LED bulb PCB dielectric.
Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion
The expansion rate of an LED bulb PCB substrate is referred to as its CTE.
The substrate material will experience a rise in its CTE when the decomposition temperature (Td) is exceeded on exposure.
Substrates usually have CTEs larger than copper layers measured in parts per million (ppm). Application of heat results in interconnection problems due to this difference.
The CTE normally ranges from 10 to 20 and should be kept as low as possible across the axis. This is because it is the direction of expansion of materials.
Decomposition Temperature (Td)
An LED bulb PCB substrate decomposes when exposed to extreme temperatures beyond a certain limit.
This results in loss of mass of the PCB of approximately 5% of its total mass.
The decomposition temperature (Td) is the range of temperature in which the above occurs. Decomposition temperatures have a permanent effect on the substrate material.
It is advisable to use an LED bulb PCB substrate that will withstand extreme changes in temperature of the working environment.
Ideally, Td should higher than 250°C because that is the optimum temperature required to solder a substrate.
Is The Difference Between COB LED PCB And SMD LED PCB?
SMD means Surface Mount Device. Through-hole technology has almost been replaced by the surface mount technology (SMT).
Surface Mount Devices are extremely compressed components and they can be mount directly over the LED bulb PCB.
Since the components contain small leads or no leads at all, the need for holes is eliminated.
COB stands for Chip on Board. This type of LED bulb PCB is comparatively new to the LED industry.
They are essentially several LED chips (normally nine or more) directly merged to a substrate. The manufacturer does this and ensures that a single module is formed.
What Are The Advantages Of SMD LED Bulb PCB?
LED Bulb PCB
- They are brighter and extremely efficient
- They have a very high lumen output thus illuminance level is greatly improved.
- Due to the absence of wires, their application is seamless and with less fuss.
What Are The Main Components Of LED PCB?
Some of the main components of LED bulb PCB include the following:
They are used to create the light. They operate by the movement of electrical current or electrons that go through some semiconductor material.
They can be described tiny yellow pieces of LED that are fixed to the metal base of the PCB. The two types of chip configurations are;
- Discrete: this involve multiple LEDs placed on a printed circuit board.
- Chip on Board: it includes a single chip of LED that is placed on the PCB that forms a uniform and spotless beam pattern.
Based on the high intensity of brightness of the LED Bulb PCB, a lens can be used to uniformly dispense the light.
If the lamp is omni-directional, then optics are used in place of lenses. To reduce shattering risk, the lens or optic is usually made of plastic.
The primary optic can be directly placed on the surface of the LED bulb PCB. The secondary optic then amasses and redistributes the light from the lamp.
The LED chips sit on this piece of metal. The LEDs generate a lot of heat internally despite not generating little ambient external heat.
The LEDs performance and short and long term life is affected by the high temperatures around the LED junction.
For the light output, color and life of the LED bulb PCB to be optimally maintained, heat must be dissipated from the LED chip.
Wavelength color shift and a lower light output are some of the short term effects of an inappropriate heat sink.
Most metals are preferred as mounting materials for LED bulb PCBs because of their excellent conduction abilities.
It takes the sockets energy and communicates with the LED to either switch on or off, to change color or other times to dim.
They also serve to protect the LED from fluctuations in current or voltage which result in undesired light output changes.
Their design allows them to run on a voltage as low as 12-24V but can also extend to voltages as high as 120-277v.
A heat conductive housing is required for the LED bulb PCB because the circuit board heats up very fast when current passes through it.
The preferred component for housing is usually aluminum.
This is because of its heat dissipating abilities and its response to touch unlike fluorescent, halogen and incandescent light.
LED bulb PCBs are currently a direct replacement for the existing conventional light bulbs. They are normally available in the bases that conventional traditional bulbs are available in.
Some of the common LED bulb CPCB bases include:
The bayonet LED bulb PCB contains two nodes on its side which are used to lock in place the LED bulb.
They can be either single contact (SC) or double contact (DC) reliant on the contact points present on the LED bulb PCB.
This type of LED bulb PCB base is normally shaped like traditional light bulbs mostly associated with Thomas Edison.
They are popularly used in business premises and residential areas.
These types of LED bulb PCB bases come with accompanying special figures.
The E on the base stands for Edison while the subsequent number designates the base width in millimeters.
This is an LED bulb PCB base containing two pins instead of the old-fashioned screw-in design.
They are normally denoted by the letter G and an indicating number specifying the width space between pins e.g. GU 7.8.
The LED bulb PCB can have more than two ins despite all pins being lumped up together in the bi-pin grouping.
Other common variations include the single pin (S), double pin (D), triple pin (T) or the quadruple pin (Q).
What Is The Recommended Width Of LED Bulb PCB Traces?
The design of the LED bulb PCB will determine the width of the traces.
The inconsistency ensures the total circuit width varies and this must be always considered.
Generally, it is advisable for low currents to have a 0.010 inches of width trace wires for analog and digital signals.
Traces carrying more than 0.3A of current are required to be wider.
Why Should Ground And Power Tracks Be Wider In LED Bulb PCB?
The man reason for tracking is to ensure creation of geometries.
Such that all terminals that are allocated to the various nets are connected while obeying all the design rules of the LED bulb PCB.
Tracking width ensures reliability and quality fabrication while avoiding shorts, crosstalk and opens.
A wider ground and power track guarantees the optimum current conveyed throughout the LED bulb PCB without overheating.
An approximated thickness of copper and current combined with the spacing of the tracks.
Their length and ambient temperature will define the ground and powers optimum track width.
Which Are The Types Of LEDs Used In LED PCB?
There are two types of LEDs used in an LED bulb PCB;
Surface Mounted/Integral Single Point LEDs
These type of LEDs are attached on the lower circuits bottom layer. They come with a wider variety of colors including bi-color.
Termination from the same connector tail is made possible by embossing the graphic layers such that they can house the LEDs.
Block/Single Point LEDs
These types of LEDs are the most flexible. They work efficiently with almost all types of material surface finishes.
In order to achieve a good light diffusion, it is advisable to utilize a textured or mate surface.
It is also vital to note that as much as the LED cannot through the active area of a tactile switch, manipulation can be graphically made.
This is to make it look like part of the switch.
Why Should You Avoid Putting Vias Close To SMT Pads When Drilling Vias In LED Bulb PCB?
The Vertical Interconnect Access are a characteristic found in LED bulb PCB that makes circuit placement possible between multiple layers.
In some PCBs, the vias may be placed on the surface and extend to the interior while in others have the vias extend end to end on the board.
They are made of copper and are positioned after holes are drilled on the LED bulb PCB surface.
Positioning the vias very close to the surface mounted pads has the effect of migrating the solder from the pads and eventually into the via spaces.
Faulty joints arise from such scenarios.
It is advisable to totally avoid it by creating a general distance greater or equal to 0.025 between the surface mounted technology and the vias.
How Do You Control Thermal Problems In LED Bulb PCB?
Most failures that occur on an LED bulb PCB are temperature related. Extreme temperatures at the junctions lead to reduced light output and rapid degradation of the chip.
There are three main parameters that affect junction temperatures.
They include ambient conditions, the immediate LED bulb PCB surrounding’s ambient temperature and the PCBs ambient conditions and LED thermal path.
Thermal resistance of an LED bulb PCB can be described as how effortlessly the flow of heat is from the LED chip to the surrounding.
A lower thermal resistance number means the heat flow is easier.
Thermal resistance is measured in degree Celsius/watt meaning a higher wattage will result in higher temperatures.
Some of the methods used to deal with thermal problems in a LED bulb PCB include:
Heat sink on LED PCB
The heat transfer from a heat sink to an external medium takes place in four steps. First, the heat is transferred from the LED bulb PCB to the heat sink.
It is then conducted within the heat sink to the heat sink’s surface.
After that it is conducted from the surface by convection to the medium surrounding the heat sink or by radiation depending on the heat sinks surface.
The modes of heat transfer applied determine the ability and proficiency of the heat sink. The heat sinks allow heat from the LED bulb PCB to flow via conduction.
For the power to flow continually from the source, the heat within the heat sink must be dissipated.
Retaining the heat within the heat sink will raise the temperatures of the LED bulb PCB leading to overheating.
The LED bulb PCB heat sinks have three different ways of dissipating power.
They are by conduction whereby the heat transfer occurs between two solid surfaces.
Convection occurs when the heat is transferred from a heat sink to a moving fluid.
The moving fluid in most LED bulb PCB is usually air.
Radiation involves heat transfer from the heat sinks to another body having a different surface temperature via electromagnetic waves.
The most commonly used heat sinks in LED bulb PCB are extruded, flat plates and die cast finned.
Aluminum is the preferred material used though flat sheet heat sinks normally utilize copper.
Heat sinks with painted surface finishes tend to have a higher emissivity compared to unpainted and bright ones.
Thermal resistance can be increased by etching or anodizing.
Types of Vias
Thermal vias can be used to transfer heat away from vital components of and LED bulb PCB. Conduction allows heat transfer to the thermal vias enabling movement of heat away from essential components.
Thermal resistance of an LED bulb PCB can be improved by adding vias.
As long as they are appropriately placed and the thickness of the board put into consideration for purposes of determining the hole diameter.
Welding LED Components
For the effective functioning of an LED bulb PCB, the components have to be welded on the right base.
A ceramic plate is the most preferred base since greatly minimizes heating.
Does The Solder Mask Color Matter During LED Bulb PCB Manufacturing?
The color usually seen on an LED bulb PCB is known as solder mask/solder stop mask.
This is a solid protective film that is brought about by the welding resist immediately after ultra violet curing on the LED bulb PCB.
It is usually scattered on the LED bulb PCB where soldering is not required so as to act as a shield to the non-solder components from solder.
In addition, they offer insulation, are anti-moisture and give the PCB a beautiful appearance.
The solder mask color does not make any difference in the functionality of an LED bulb PCB.
This is because its main function is basically to add a protection layer.
For purposes of inspection of defects, the selection of solder mask color comes in handy.
High contrast colors like green offer a higher trace visibility hence preferred during LED bulb PCB prototyping.
The selection of solder mask color for an LED bulb PCB varies greatly and serves some of the following purposes;
The color serves a major part when it comes to heat conduction and reflectivity. Applications dealing with LED lighting benefit the most from this.
Different manufacturers may decide to vary the solder mask color of different types of LED bulb PCB so as to differentiate them.
The varying colors can also show the different prototypes.
This can prove helpful in situations where the fabrication and assembly is mixed.
As well as serve as a quality assurance technique and maintenance of various technical applications.
End users of LED bulb PCBs prefer eye-catching color variations in as much as majority of them will not be concerned about its hardware.
Some fabricators make a product saleable and unique by using colors while pairing them with translucent exteriors.
How Do You Overcome The Common LED Bulb PCB Defects?
Oil Peeling Of Solder Mask
A higher requirement to exposure energy is required for black solder mask.
Solder masks that are a little thicker tend to usually have an incomplete exposure of the solder mask oils bottom layer.
This causes the solder mask oil to peel. This defect can be efficiently addressed by having secondary exposure.
In the event of a bad function, the LED bulb PCB can just describe the function but cannot be specific on which pad it has occurred.
Such a problem can be assumed to be assumed to be a malfunction of a whole row of LEDs.
In the event of such a defect, a network dot should specifically be determined.
The LED bulb PCB component with the defect must be destroyed and the solder mask oil removed.
Defects Of Board Angle
LED bulb PCBs which are relatively thick and with fragile side angles should be handled very carefully during fabrication.
As a protection measure, a base plate is added in order to reduce the defect in the event it occurs.
The base plate size is required to be bigger compared to the single margins.
Scratches on the surface of an LED bulb PCB have a serious negative impact on its performance.
In order to combat this, a high copper foil volume is used to reduce open and short circuits due to scratches.
Poor Board Outline
When it comes to very small LED bulb PCB boards without margins, installing the LED holes may result in poor mark-up effect.
The mark-up screws also have a tendency of being displaced and lose resulting in angle bulge.
This can be solved by applying optimum process assistance margins which are chosen as a method of improvement.
An LED bulb PCB usually has a huge number of pads densely placed with big copper blocks on its upper side.
Such asymmetrical stresses are a major contributor to the PCB board warpage.
For a considerable flatness to be attained, the LED bulb PCB warpage has to be maintained under 0.5%.
How Do You Repair LED Bulb PCB Assembly?
The circuit has to be switched on first in order to identify the LEDs that are not lighting.
A soldering iron is then used to remove all the malfunctioning LEDs while keeping in mind their polarities.
The LEDs are then replaced with others of similar voltage. It is not necessary to match the voltages in the LED by a standard value of resistance, a general value is preferred.
The replaced LEDs are then connected to match the previous design.
After assessing the sockets polarity, the circuit is then switched on.
The LED bulb PCB will not work if the circuit has the wrong socket.
The sockets should be aligned in a unidirectional manner.
How Do You Increase Lumens During Manufacturing Of LED Bulb PCB?
For this to be achieved, a very good quality LED chip must be used as the source of light for a continuous high lumen to be achieved.
It has to have a characteristic resistance to high temperatures and a comparatively high luminous flux.
Lumen output can also be increased by applying a very effective cooling technology.
The conversion rate of energy is fixed as only 35% gets converted to light while the remaining 65% is converted to heat.
For LED bulb PCBs, the relative luminous flux compared to its junction temperature is also fixed.
The means that an increase in junction temperature will lead to an increase in lumen.
A 12V supply to an LED bulb PCB decreases the forward current while increasing the ambient temperature.
The lumen tends to decrease with a decrease in the forward current.
For all your LED bulb PCBs, you can contact Venture right now.