What is high density PCB?
A circuit board which has a higher wiring density per unit area as opposed to conventional board is called as HDI PCB. HDI PCBs have finer spaces and lines, minor vias and capture pads and higher connection pad density.
It is helpful in enhancing electrical performance and reduction in weight and size of the equipment.
High Frequency PCB Layout Techniques
1.The less alternating leads of the pins between the layers of high frequency circuits, the better. …
2.The shorter the lead between the pins of high-frequency circuits is, the better it is
3.The less bend between the pins of high-frequency electronic devices, the better.
What are the basic considerations for designing high frequency circuits?
1.Keep long parallel runs to a minimum on the same board.
2.Reduce the occurrence of long traces on adjacent board layers.
3.Maintain as much distance between signal traces as possible.
4.If individual signal traces do require higher levels of isolation, route them on separate layers when possible.
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Venture allows you to select your needed types of High Density product of PCB and any of its related products. High Density PCBs have greater circuitry density. It has different features including, High Density PCB is made up of at least two layers, having passive substrate construction without electrical connection.
Your Leading High Density PCB Supplier in China
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High Density PCB: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
If you have any question about high density PCB, you will find the answer right here.
This is because it covers everything about high density PCB – from features, material type, design, benefits and performance, just to mention a few.
Keep reading to learn more
- What Is A High-Density PCB?
- What Are The Via Fill Types Used In High Density PCBs?
- What Are The Benefits Of High Density PCBs?
- How Is Signal And Power Integrity Improved In A High Density PCB?
- What Are The Different Variations Of High Density PCB?
- What Are The Features Of A High Density PCB?
- How Do You Avoid Common High Density PCB Design Mistakes?
- What Factors Determine The Cost Of High Density PCB?
- What Are The Methods Of Creating Microvias By Laser In High Density PCB?
- What Are The Design Considerations For High Density PCBs?
- What Are The Challenges When Designing A High Density PCB?
- What Material Selection Needs Should Be Met When Designing High Density PCBs?
- What Should Be Considered When Choosing The Trace And Space In High Density PCB?
- What Are The Applications Of High Density PCB?
- What Is The Difference Between Staggered And Stacked Microvias In High Density PCB?
- What Is The Process Of Manufacturing High Density PCB?
- What Are The IPC Standards That A High Density PCB Designer Should Observe?
- What Are The Critical Dimensions Of Laser-drilled Microvias in High Density PCBs?
- How Is Tracking Achieved In High Density PCB?
- What Are The Materials Used In High Density PCB Substrates?
- How Is Heat Transfer Reduced In High Density PCB?
- Why Are Microvias Preferred Over Through-hole Vias In High Density PCBs?
What Is A High-Density PCB?
This is a circuit board that has a very high wiring density per unit area unlike other conventional boards. The lines and spaces are fine with captures and minor vias and a very high connection pad density.
It enhances the electrical performance of a device while reducing its weight and size.
High Density PCBs are the preferred option when it comes to expensive laminated boards and a high layer count.
A High Density PCB
What Are The Via Fill Types Used In High Density PCBs?
Via fill materials come in a variety of types. They include:
- Electrochemical plating
- Non-conductive epoxy
- Conductive epoxy
- Silver filled
- Copper filled
All these via fills end up with a via that is submerged within a flat land which completely solders just like any other normal land.
Microvias and vias can either be drilled buried or blinded and afterwards plated and concealed under the SMT lands.
Special equipment is needed to process such types of vias and it is very time consuming. The process time is added by the numerous drill cycles combined with controlled depth drilling.
What Are The Benefits Of High Density PCBs?
Choosing the correct design paired with an efficient supplier, High Density PCBs greatly improve the performance and quality of a product. Its advantages include:
Reduced Size With Lower Weight
With a high density PCB, more components can be placed on either side of the plain PCB thus achieving more functionality from a little space. This tends to increase the equipment’s general abilities.
Reliability of the high density PCB is enhanced by the Microvias small aspect ratios combined with its impeccable construction quality.
Their design is so specific such that compromising the connections is most unlikely.
Improved Electrical Performance
Electrical performance is improved through the presence of very many transistors and the reduced distance between components. Power consumed is low thus the signal integrity is greatly improved.
Signal transmissions are faster over smaller sizes. This results in a considerable reduction in crossing delays and lower signal losses.
Faster Production Time
Design efficiencies and he use of fewer materials means that the production time is faster and the product can reach the market at a very short time frame.
Component placement on High Density PCB is quite easy and the testing time and trouble shooting is reduced by the PCBs high electrical performance.
Because of their reduced size and fewer layers required, High Density PCBS are very cost-effective when properly planned and manufactured. They will require fewer raw materials compared to other PCB options.
One High Density Interconnect (HDI) board may be used instead of the traditional multiple layers. This ensures that a small material with less area can produce more value and functionality.
High Density PCBs Have Numerous Benefits
How Is Signal And Power Integrity Improved In A High Density PCB?
Signal and power integrity are effectively improved using Microvias. Stubs and reduced capacitive loads are represented by vias which degrade the high-speed signals.
Microvias which are shorter and smaller offers lower parasitic loads therefore allowing routing minus via stubs. Component solder lands can have Microvias that are capped and filled placed directly on them thus reducing the inductance in the network used to distribute power.
What Are The Different Variations Of High Density PCB?
The different types of Via/Microvia arrangements used in High Density PCBs include:
- Stacked Vias
- Stacked Microvias
- Staggered Vias
- Staggered Microvias
- Via In Pad
Via In Pad
What Are The Features Of A High Density PCB?
- They have alternate assemblies of coreless builds that have layer pairs
- They contain buried and through vias
- Their construction of passive substrate contains no electrical connection
- They have through vias on at least two layers
- Layer pairs are used in their coreless construction.
How Do You Avoid Common High Density PCB Design Mistakes?
The flowing tips will assist in avoiding common High Density Design mistakes:
- Prioritize Space
This means that as many components as possible during the high density PCB design. The design should be such that in future the board can easily be maintained.
The amount of space between definite components should be determined and the option of extra room kept open.
- Incorporate Design Reviews
It is often hard for High Density PCB designer to spot his own design errors. This is rife when the PCB has a very high component density.
Seeking advice and reviews from different technicians and designers is a tactical way of rectifying tiny mistakes before they become big. Such reviews are the best way of cost and time saving.
- Avoid Solder-related Issues
Solder can be a major cause of many high-density PCB issues if care is not taken while manufacturing. Sloppy connections may be experienced when solder is siphoned by the via-in-pads.
A remedy to such an occurrence is to shun the use of via-in-pad though this is impossible in some high-density PCB designs depending on their uses. The issue can however be eliminated by using solder mask to cover the via-in-pads.
- Implications of Blind and Buried Vias
The outer and inner layers of the PCB are connected by blind vias. Numerous inner layers are connected by blind vias which don’t go through the whole board.
The vias should properly designed since they affect the board construction. Their placement also impacts the signal performance based on their location.
What Factors Determine The Cost Of High Density PCB?
Stacked vs Staggered
Stacked or staggered set ups can cause a variation in the cost of high density PCB. Copper can be used to fill stacked vias while the same cannot be done to staggered Microvias.
More time and material is needed to fill the vias thus increasing the cost and time to complete the project.
The choice of materials to be incorporated in the board is varied. Essential materials include fiberglass, FR-4, metal and any other material that the application requires.
Surface finishing can be done using ENIG, gold, HASL, immersion silver, immersion tin and many more.
The ease of solderability of ENIG and its flatness makes it the most common surface finish for High Density PCBs.
Number Of Sequential Laminations
The sequential laminations required are determined by the quantity of via structure types and number of layers.
Increased number of lamination means an increase cost and processing time in as much as it will improve the performance of the product.
Type And Quantity Of Microvias, Vias And Through-Holes
The cost of the high density PCB will be affected by the choice of Microvias, Vias and Through-holes and the quantities used.
The cost of smaller Microvias is higher than that of larger Microvias because of the precision required.
Quantity Of Layers And Stackup Height
The Stackup type needed affects the cost of a high density PCB. A 2-n-2 High Density PCB will cost more than a 1-n-1 because of its complex nature.
In increase in number of layers will also increase the price. An effective and economical number of layers should be settled on.
The Cost of High Density PCB Depends On Various Factors
What Are The Methods Of Creating Microvias By Laser In High Density PCB?
- Image with carbon dioxide: carbon dioxide is used to burn the dielectric .at 350 hits per second. This method is very fast but costly because an extra image process is required.
UV with carbon dioxide: UV under helicoidale rotation is used to take off the copper. The carbon dioxide then burns the dielectric at 200 hits per second. This is the best method considering its cost, speed and quality.
UV: the UV is used to burn both dielectric and copper at 80 hits per second. It is slow process but its technical capability makes it flexible.
What Are The Design Considerations For High Density PCBs?
Laser Direct Imaging And Contact Imagery
The High Density PCB must contain very fine lines using cutting-edge technology in clean rooms that guarantee safe and secure processing.
Repairs are not possible with such boards hence because of their delicate details therefore extreme precision is required on the first time of manufacture.
Contact imagery is alternated with LDI based on the equipment’s verification needs.
For minute spacing and lines, LDI is preferred for verification hence allowing smaller form factors.
Laser Direct Imaging Being Used In PCB Design
Copper is combined with the PCB cores in the lamination stage together with pre-preg layers in the case of multi-layer PCBs using pressure and heat.
Different boards have varied amounts of heat and pressure applied to them.
Vias are drilled once lamination is complete.
High density PCBs undergo this process several times to avert breaking and shifting when drilling is taking place.
Laser Drill Technology
All High Density PCB designs need laser drills to create vias. Lasers having a diameter of up to 20 microns can be created using these drills which can cut through glass and metal smoothly.
Using materials like uniform glass can result in smaller holes due to their small dielectric constant.
Vias can be placed on the PCBs flat lands by plating them during the production process of via-in-pad.it is then filled with any suitable fill type, capped and then plating is done over it.
The via-in-pad process has around 10-12 steps and uses specialized apparatus and professional technicians.
This process makes thermal management simple, minimizes space requirements and capacitors to be bypassed in the shortest way in designs with high frequency.
Laser Drilled Via In Pad Technology
Via Fill Types
The High Density PCB requirements and its specific applications will determine the type of via fill to be used.
Some of the via fills include conductive and nonconductive epoxy, electrochemical plating and copper-filled.
The chosen via field should be able to solder entirely after flushing with the flat land.
Vias and Microvias should be able to be drilled, blind or buried after the fill is applied and then plated and concealed under SMT lands.
What Are The Challenges When Designing A High Density PCB?
The different challenges experienced in High Density PCB design include:
- For the board to be completed, more trace routes will be needed.
- The workspace area on the PCB board is limited.
- Extended signal flight times are created by trace routes which are longer than usual.
- The spacing is very tight and the components are smaller.
- Both sides of the board have a very large number of components
What Material Selection Needs Should Be Met When Designing High Density PCBs?
- The material be plated and have dependable Microvia
- Thermal needs have to be met
- The dielectric should be able to use chemistry that is attuned to the core substrate materials existing chemistry
- The material should be able to endure shock on multiple layers like multiple reflows and solder floats
- The materials plated copper adhesion has to be acceptable
- The material should be able to offer sufficient and dependable dielectric spacing amid metal layers
What Should Be Considered When Choosing The Trace And Space In High Density PCB?
The major consideration is reducing the width of the traces therefore increasing the density and lowering the layer count.
If such a consideration needs to be implemented, then the exact space and trace size should be 2-mil which gives a yield of 90% for that density.
When it comes to the high density PCBs cost and manufacturability, it is vital to note that these considerations cannot be dealt with individually.
A reduction of trace and space will ultimately lower the layer count thus lowering the cost of the board.
What Are The Applications Of High Density PCB?
High Density PCBs have facilitated the production of miniature and cost-effective devices without compromising performance or reliability.
Some of its applications are:
Consumer Electronics: the advancement in High Density PCBs has enabled devices like small smart watches to act as miniature personal computers.
These PCBs can be found in tablets, laptops and consumer electronics such as GPS trackers and digital cameras.
Home devices such as fridges and smart thermostats utilize this technology.
Industrial Uses: Internet of Things (IoT) devices have gained popularity in the manufacturing industry with the increase in automation and computerization.
Most of these advanced equipment utilizes High Density PCB technology.
Machineries are increasingly incorporating smart sensors used for data acquisition and supervisory control.
Communication: Besides laptops and smartphones, High Density PCBs are used in equipment that facilitate their functionality.
Such devices include semiconductors, routers, module and switches.
Audiovisual equipment also commonly utilizes High Density PCB technology. These boards are also very common devices used in personal communication and networks businesses use.
Automotive and Aerospace: High Density PCBs allow many capabilities to be enshrined in a very small space resulting in devices that have less weight.
Lower weight in aerospace and automotive industries result in very efficient operations.
Modern cars contain around 50 microprocessors on board that serve various purposes like diagnostics and engine controls.
Other features like onboard Wi-Fi and rearview cameras heavily rely on High Density PCB technology.
Medical Services: Medical devices have advanced electronically. They include devices for laboratory analysis, monitoring and surgical procedures.
They incorporate the High Density PCB technology.
This technology has improved the medical performance and introduced smaller and cheaper devices. They have improved the accuracy in medical tests and procedures.
What Is The Difference Between Staggered And Stacked Microvias In High Density PCB?
In staggered vias, the process steps are basically fewer.
The laser-drilled vias need not to be filled with copper due to the fact that that the first laser drill cannot be landed on by the second laser drill.
A distinctively designed plating tank is used for plating or filling a Microvia shut.
The design chemistry has the laser-drilled Microvias plated from the bottom to the top until the hole is completely filled.
Plating is only necessary when an inner layer is being stacked or when a via-in-pad is found on the outer layer.
The need to copperplate the plate shut is eliminated when the second laser-drilled via is offset or staggered.
The spacing between the laser drills required by the manufacturer has to be established if the laser-drilled Microvias have to be staggered.
What Is The Process Of Manufacturing High Density PCB?
High Density PCBs are essentially manufactured just like the other PCBs with distinguished for hole drilling and PCB stackup.
Laser drilling is preferred given that the High Density boards have vias which need smaller drill holes.
In as much as laser drills produce very precise and small holes, their operation is limited by depth.
This means that a restricted number of layers at per drilling can be drilled.
Multiple drilling processes need to be carried out for High Density Boards having blind and buried vias with multiple layers.
Successive layer bonding is necessary to ensure the right stackup is achieved with the desires sequential lamination cycle.
This procedure increases the cost and manufacturing time significantly.
For reliable and high quality products, the manufacturing process should be well understood.
Good coordination with the contract manufacturer is key in implementing a good DFM for the High Density PCB.
The manufacturing of High Density PCB is an advanced technology that needs experts with specialized tools and equipment.
These may include laser direct imaging (LDI), laser drills and a production environment that should be very clean.
What Are The IPC Standards That A High Density PCB Designer Should Observe?
The standards governing the design of High Density PCBs include:
- IPC/JPCA-2315: This guides on the High Density PCB Microvias and structure.
- IPC–226: They contain design rule selection, structures that interconnect within the PCB, specifics of material characterization and formation of Microvias
- IPC/JPCA-4104: This standard aids in singling out the High Density PCB structure material required. It also contains dielectric materials performance specifications.
- IPC-6016: This standard outlines the High Density substrate specifications. It also guides on the High Density PCB structure performance and qualification.
What Are The Critical Dimensions Of Laser-drilled Microvias in High Density PCBs?
There are three critical dimensions which are the dielectrics press-out thickness, the pad size and laser drill size.
The laser drill size is defined as a ratio of the completed press-out thickness for the via to be plated properly.
The dimensions of the laser drill can get very small but it should be noted that they only go from one layer to the adjacent.
A 2-mil hole can be laser-drilled easily but plating the 2-mil hole is very hectic due to thickness aspect ratio brought about by the hole diameter.
How Is Tracking Achieved In High Density PCB?
Aspects to be considered to achieve tracking in High Density PCB include:
- Blind holes cab be pad-drilled directly if the quality of the signal comes first.
- The reflow path of ground-to-ground should be short around signals when they are in RF and analog areas
- Interference to nearby signals is reduced by avoiding Monoblock pavements based on the ability of the power to meet current.
- Impedance signals and important signals should be placed first due to the limited space allocated for tracking
- To restrict mutual interference, blind holes lacking any physical interference connection must not be included in the track area
What Are The Materials Used In High Density PCB Substrates?
The materials are:
- Photosensitive Liquid Dielectrics
- Laser-drillable prepregs (LD)
- Photosensitive Dry Film Dielectrics
- Prepregs and Conventional FR-4 Cores
- Polyimide Flexible Film
- Resin Coated Copper Foil (reinforced)
- Thermally cured Liquid Dielectric
- Thermally cured Dry Films
How Is Heat Transfer Reduced In High Density PCB?
Heat transfer is reduced because the distance the heat travels before escaping has been greatly reduced on the High Density PCB.
They PCB also undergoes reduced stress because of thermal expansion thus improving its lifespan.
Why Are Microvias Preferred Over Through-hole Vias In High Density PCBs?
Microvias are preferred in PCBs where very high precision is needed.
Problems related to Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) values of copper are not common with Microvias because of their short barrel.
An efficient High Density PCB is deigned in such a way that all common vias are replaced with Microvias. This reduces the quantity of signal layers while improving the routing density.
For any questions or inquiry about high density PCBs, contact us now.