Comparison of Final Finish Performance
The table to the right shows a comparison between the four different surface finishes and ENEPIG.
By comparing multiple reflow cycles capability, pre-assembly shelf life and lead bonding capability, none of the four main final finish options are perfect for lead-free assembly and ENEPIG shows great advantages: excellent shelf life, solder joint reliability, gold wire bondability and use as a contact surface.It can be sure that ENEPIG is suitable for a wide range of assembly requirements.
Is Enepig lead-free?
ENEPIG came through with flying colours as it formed one of the most robust solder joints with lead-free SAC type alloys.
Recognising the potential of ENEPIG to address many new packaging reliability needs and to meet lead-free/ROHS requirements, ENEPIG is lead-free in response to market demand, as well as being environmentally friendly.
What to look for when using ENEPIG?
Some of the most important things to look out for in an ENEPIG coating include Cost: Most of the costs relate to palladium and gold, which are high cost precious metals.
Reliability: There are some problems with lead and tin bonding in ENEPIG, especially when compared to ENIG.
Fracture: ENEPIG coatings tend to fracture more easily, mainly due to the brittle nature of the tin-palladium layer formed on top of the nickel plating.
Venture ENEPIG PCB
Venture Electronics is the best manufacturer when you`re seeking for a strong and durable ENEPIG PCB. Venture is the most recommended Chinese fabricator and manufacturer of ENEPIG PCB. We have the most durable and effective ENEPIG PCB that is made from strong and high-grade materials.
Several customers count on us due to our best services and great character in the industry. We are keeping our high reputation to keep the top leading fabricator and supplier of ENEPIG PCB and more PCB products.
Venture ENEPIG PCB is the most preferred PCB because it offers unique and extra strength features. Plus it is perfect for many electrical industry applications. Only Venture is the outstanding manufacturer that fully supports your ENEPIG PCB needs.
Your Excellent ENEPIG PCB Manufacturer in China
Venture Electronics is a well-known supplier and manufacturer of ENEPIG PCB in China. We supply a strong and high-end quality of ENEPIG PCB to our valued customers. Since the Venture ENEPIG PCB is one of the high in-demand products in the international market, we can supply thousands of stocks to sufficiently satisfy your needs.
Venture ENEPIG PCB is the best kind of electronic device. Electroless Nickel Electroless Palladium Immersion Gold in short ENEPIG PCB, is a type of metal plating finish for PCBs that offers several advantages that make it perfect for various applications. Regarding its functions, Venture ENEPIG PCB has an outstanding and reliable function for any operations.
Our unique ENEPIG PCB offers the best work. Since it`s manufactured by our skilled engineers and with the latest technology, it has high density and high-speed designs. This surface finish for PCBs has attained popularity in recent years for its low pricing offers. On top of that, ENEPIG plating can also extend the functional shelf life of a plated PCB for a long period of time.
If you choose ENEPIG PCB from Venture Electronics, there are several benefits it offers. It is durable, corrosion-resistant to avoid the occurrence of black nickel, cheaper, high wire bond pull strengths, protective barriers, low contact resistance which is important in PCBs to stop energy losses, poor grounding, and overheating, has an unlimited shelf life, and perfect for conductive adhesives. ENEPIG provides the largest number of advantages while keeping the material and processing costs relatively lower.
The benefits are not just significant in consumer electronics, but also in different industry applications. ENEPIG finishes for PCBs help maintain its high reliability and functionality, making it ideal for various applications where reliability is a top requirement. You can use it in industries like aerospace automotive, medical, and defense, and military.
As one of the famous suppliers and manufacturers, we provide strong and high-end ENEPIG PCBs to our valued customers. It comes in a variety of designs, features, and sizes. We have comprehensive abilities to supply the ENEPIG PBC based on your requirements.
Venture is formed with respectful and well-oriented staff, assuring to treat you in the best way you deserve. If you need to have excellent ENEPIG PCB for your business improvement or personal applications, you can fully rely on Venture. We are glad to supply your needs.
Contact us now!
ENEPIG PCB- The Ultimate FAQ Guide
The lookout on the printed circuit board is relatively broad. You’ll come across several materials, packaging technologies, and forms in which the PCB exists.
Today our focus is on the ENEPIG PCB. We will start from the very basics and then move on to deeper aspects of the ENEPIG PCB.
At the end of this piece, you will have access to answers to several questions concerning the ENEPIG printed circuit board.
- What Is ENEPIG PCB?
- What Are The Advantages Of ENEPIG PCB?
- Can You Solder ENEPIG For ENEPIG PCB?
- How Can I Do Electroless Nickel Plating For The ENEPIG PCB?
- What Are The Factors That Affect ENEPIG PCB Plating Quality?
- What Is The Working Principle Of ENEPIG For ENEPIG PCB?
- Is There A Difference Between ENEPIG, ENEG, And ENIG In Terms of ENEPIG PCB?
- How Did ENEPIG Come To Existence?
- What Are The Other Finishing Process Different From ENEPIG, ENIG Plating For An ENEPIG PCB?
- What Are The Downsides Of ENEPIG PCB?
- What Are The Uses Of ENEPIG PCB?
- What Are The Features Of ENEPIG PCB?
- What Are The Things To Consider When Choosing A Final Surface Finish In Terms Of ENEPIG PCB?
- Is It Possible To Measure The Palladium Layer Thickness Of ENEPIG PCB?
- What Is The Basic ENEPIG Thickness Specification
What Is ENEPIG PCB?
ENEPIG means Electroless Nickel Electroless Palladium Immersion Gold.
It is a form of finishing applied to the surface of copper layers in the printed circuit boards.
The primary purpose is to combat corrosion resulting from oxidation in the circuit.
It is a metal plating for PCB that continues to gain enormous attention across the industry.
The ENEPIG came into existence in as far as the ’90s but started gaining recognition in recent years. It is now one of the most prestigious PCB surface finishing with high efficiency.
The idea with ENEPIG is that instead of manufacturers using pure gold for the plating process, they use palladium.
The palladium made it the most cost-effective surface finish and earned global use.
It’s amazing to know that ENEPIG fits into almost any PCB assembly and is perfect for wire bonding(aluminum and gold).
What Are The Advantages Of ENEPIG PCB?
The ENEPIG as used for ENEPIG PCB guarantees several advantages. Little wonder it earns the status of a global surface finish. The advantages include the following.
One crucial goal is to ensure the circuit has top solder joint strength when finishing PCB surfaces. And ENEPIG proves to provide this feat.
In addition, the ENEPIG befits numerous alloys, and it doesn’t need a lead in its soldering operation.
When we talk about ENEPIG, one factor remains: substituting gold for palladium for the plating process.
This is one major strength booster for the PCB soldering joints. Palladium absolutely melts during the soldering process.
We know as humans, we factor the cost into every project we handle. The same concept applies to plating the printed circuit board. ENEPIG is less expensive compared to other plating mechanisms like Electrolytic Nickel Electrolytic Gold(ENEG).
This is because ENEPIG uses a thinner version of gold, which we call palladium, compared to ENEG, which uses thicker gold layers.
Extra Protective Barriers
When carrying out surface finishing, there always exists a soldering reaction between tin and copper. So the palladium is the shielding base between the copper, gold, and tin.
The golden edge of ENEPIG in guaranteeing PCB durability lies in its ability to resist corrosion. The base material we call palladium makes this feat possible.
Good For Wire Bonding
Wire bonding is a crucial concept in PCBs’ plating and surface finishing. Therefore, the bonds between the wires have to be in full strength.
So with ENEPIG, the aluminum and gold bonding wire remains in good shape.
Alternative Use Of Adhesives
When joining components on the PCB, It’s common practice that manufacturers opt for adhesives rather than the regular soldering process.
Whatever the case is, ENEPIG is also suitable for adhesives.
Other advantages include;
- It can stay in storage for a long time
- Highly resistant to overheating
Can You Solder ENEPIG For ENEPIG PCB?
Yes, you can solder ENEPIG for ENEPIG PCBs.
One crucial goal is to ensure the circuit has top solder joint strength when finishing PCB surfaces. And ENEPIG proves to provide this feat. In addition, the ENEPIG befits numerous alloys, and it doesn’t need a lead in its soldering operation.
When we talk about ENEPIG, one factor remains: substituting gold for palladium for the plating process. This is one major strength booster for the PCB soldering joints. Palladium absolutely melts during the soldering process.
How Can I Do Electroless Nickel Plating For The ENEPIG PCB?
Here is the idea; it involves you depositing nickel-alloy coating through the process of chemical reduction. For, example use reducing agents to reduce nickel ions to metallic nickel.
But before the steps, there are a few things to put in mind, and they are;
- Pretreat copper
- Make other metals and oxides passive
- A reasonable gold layer thickness of the range 20-70 nanometers
- Standard nickel thickness should be within the range of 1-5nanometers
With this in mind, let’s view the process.
- Start with cleaning the pads.
- Then catalyze the palladium
- Deposit nickel using the process of autocatalysis
- Then the immersion Gold process
What Are The Factors That Affect ENEPIG PCB Plating Quality?
When plating your PCB using ENEPIG, you should push for quality. This is because the plating quality transits into influencing the overall quality of the PCB.
In a bid to achieve this, you should be aware of the factors that guide and determine the quality of the process.
- The neatness of the surface: a dry and neat surface is best for the process. Make an effort to see that there are no debris or other contaminants on the board surface.
- Nature of surface: the surface must be smooth at all costs for quality plating.
- Control and monitor the various plating parameters such as the concentration of nickel ion, temperature, etc.
What Is The Working Principle Of ENEPIG For ENEPIG PCB?
How ENEPIG works is quite interesting. When carrying out ENEPIG your PCB, you will be placing 4 layers of metal on the PCB. With this in mind, it’s time to view the steps showing the working principle of ENEPIG.
Activation For Copper
The transformation of copper has to a catalytic surface is pivotal. For this reason, it starts with a displacement reaction.
Deposition Of Nickel
After making the copper surface catalytic, the next move is to deposit the nickel on the copper surface. This nickel is there to shield and stop any form of interplay between copper and other metals in the process.
This time the deposition is electroless, meaning the use of a chemical process(oxidation and reduction reaction).
Deposition Of Palladium
This is what makes ENEPIG different and desirable. Palladium is a variant or thin layer of gold.
It steps into the same duty as the nickel, but this time shields the nickel from interplaying with the gold layer.
The deposition of palladium is also that of an oxidation and reduction reaction. Palladium proves to have anti-corrosion and anti-oxidation properties.
Check out the acronym ENEPIG, and you will find the phrase “Immersion Gold.”This is the last phase of the process. It involves immersing the gold layer on the PCB surface.
The process involves using a displacement reaction to which will take out some palladium ions and replace them with the gold ion.
From this final immersion, it provides the amazing benefits the ENEPIG PCB has to offer;
- Oxidation resistance
- Low contact resistance
- Durable palladium solderability
And so on.
Is There A Difference Between ENEPIG, ENEG, And ENIG In Terms of ENEPIG PCB?
Beyond ENEPIG, there are other plating processes such as ENEG and ENIG.
ENEG stands for Electroless Nickel Electroless Gold plating while ENIG stands for Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold.
Yes, there are differences between ENEPIG, ENEG, and ENIG.
So let’s analyze each of them.
From its name, it involves plating with nickel and gold. However, in ENEG, the gold plating is electroless, unlike in ENIG and ENEPIG, where it is the immersion of gold.
How it differs from ENIG and ENEPIG lies in its characteristics.
- Perfect for gold wire bonding
- Requires thicker layers of gold, hence expensive
- The process is far more complicated
- Since it uses thicker layers of gold, it reduces the quality of soldering joints
It also involves plating with nickel and gold. But this time, it is the immersion of gold and not electroless. Again, ENIG, differs from others because it does not include the palladium layer.
Let’s see a few more of its characteristics.
- You can get good electrical performance from ENIG
- Not good for gold wire bonding
- Perfect with temperature
- Not so perfect solder joints
- Somethings fall prey to corrosion
How Did ENEPIG Come To Existence?
ENEPIG did not just come out of thin air. Instead, it is birth from the shortcomings of previous PCB plating processes.
The PCB is an important system responsible for other devices, appliances, and equipment we enjoy today. But before the PCB is fit for use, there has to be a surface finishing in place.
Experts came up with ways at the time to finish the surface of PCBs.
Then manufacturers used Hot Air Soldering Leveling(HASL), and Organic Solderability Preservative(OSP).
But, concerns grew when manufacturers continually experienced the limitations of the previous processes. Then ENIG came into existence in the 90s.
ENIG proved to be an upgrade of the HASL and OSP.
But still, ENIG gave its own fair share of limitations: the concept of black nickel board. The black nickel board is a defect as a result of ENIG sometimes falling to curb corrosion.
As a result, ENEPIG came into the limelight. It improves the ENIG with the extra electroless palladium.
The palladium layer makes the difference as it accrues several benefits for PCB surface finishing.
What Are The Other Finishing Process Different From ENEPIG, ENIG Plating For An ENEPIG PCB?
Yeah, we all know that when it comes to PCB surface finishing, the most popular are; ENEG, ENEPIG, and ENIG.
However, since we promised complete knowledge in this piece, we will look at other finishes still in use in the industry.
Organic Solderability Preservative
Organic Solderability Preservative
Quite orthodox but still in use. You may have come seen it as OSP; that’s what people call it. OSP uses compounds that are organic and also water-based. They are used for coating.
Some of the things manufacturers experience from organic solderability preservatives include;
- Their soldering joints are quite reliable
- Susceptible to corrosion, and as a result, poor coating life.
- Not efficient in gold wire bonding
From its name, it means plating with tin. Although tin is a good plating material, in terms of PCB, it has limitations. This is because it fails to bond with other materials of the PCB.
Other traits include;
- PCBs with tin plating does not last long in storage
- During SMT, tin plating can fade off
- Susceptible to corrosion
Just we explained with tin, silver is yet another useful plating material. It has several good sides like;
- Supports electrical testing
- Good resistance to corrosion
However, immersion with silver has its shortcomings such as;
- Inability to bond with other materials leading to poor soldering joints
- Not suitable gold wire bonding
- React adversely to environmental factors and conditions.
What Are The Downsides Of ENEPIG PCB?
ENEPIG may be the first choice when it comes to PCB surface finishing. But, it’s not all perfect with ENEPIG because it has a few drawbacks.
So let’s go through some of the disadvantages.
- Expensive materials: Although people believe ENEPIG accrues lesser cost, it is still quite expensive compared to the more traditional finishing methods. We can prove this since it uses palladium and gold. These are quite expensive materials.
- There exist a lead-tin bonding in PCBs. However, when carrying out ENEPIG, it tends to affect the lead-tin bonding due to the presence of palladium and copper.
- ENEPIG also involves depositing nickel, and it has a delicate nature. As a result, it is resonably susceptible to cracking or breaking in the long term.
- Although ENEPIG ensures good solderability, when manufacturers use thicker layers of palladium, the solderability becomes vulnerable.
- Its tendency to get wet is quite slow.
What Are The Uses Of ENEPIG PCB?
A PCB with an ENEPIG finish is of top quality. As a result, it has a broader range of usage.
You find its application in several automobile chips and packages.
Consumer Gadgets Or Devices
You can use the ENEPIG PCB for consumer devices such as computers, smartphones, home appliances, tablets, etc.
The ENEPIG PCB has relevance in the electronic designs for aircraft, missile systems, and other air military defense systems.
This is possible because the ENEPIG PCB is suitable for extreme environmental conditions
ENEPIG PCB is important in the medical field and other related healthcare sectors. For example, you can find it in devices such as hearing aids, peacemakers, X-rays, etc.
This includes an underwater navigation system, firearms, control tower system, radio communication system, etc
Solar as a source of power continues to accrue attention and relevance across the globe. Several solar cells have the ENEPIG PCB.
This includes routers, telecom towers, mobile phones, etc.
Other applications of the ENEPIG PCB includes;
- Smart clothing
- VR headsets
- Smartwatches etc
- Features in robotics and several artificial intelligence systems
- Manufacture of flexible sensors
What Are The Features Of ENEPIG PCB?
It is established that there are several finishing methods in the industry. However, our focus is on ENEPIG. So we will be going through the features of ENEPIG as it will help identify it from others.
Let’s get down to business
- ENEPIG has a shelf life greater than twelve months duration
- It features and is perfect for gold wire bonding
- It has all the abilities and functionalities for contact surface application
- It has flat planarity when it comes to surface mounting technology
- Its makeup materials are highly resistive to corrosion
- Supports the use of clean fluxes
- In the case of electrical probe testing, there is no issue
- Perfect reliability of the solder joint when using ENEPIG
- ENEPIG does not support making contact with soldering surfaces with the hands.
- Good for multiple soldering cycles
What Are The Things To Consider When Choosing A Final Surface Finish In Terms Of ENEPIG PCB?
Just as we now know, there are a variety of final surface finish methods you can use for your PCB. But that choice may be a challenge because you want the best result.
Each of the finishing methods has its strengths and limitations, but maximizing the strengths and reducing the limitations should be the focus.
As a result, we want to see the things you need to consider before making a choice critically. Because this will either make or mar your PCB quality.
Type Of Assembly
You need first to know the type of assembly that is required. This is because there are assemblies with lead, and some surface finishing will not be a good fit.
So, is it a lead-free or lead assembly? That’s the first big question.
Yeah, environmental factors are crucial for PCB production. So you have to consider them. This concerns how the finishing on the PCB reacts to external temperature, humidity, rain, etc.
Bear in mind that after finishing the PCB, it will feature in several devices with great exposure to the environment.
How long are you estimating to put the PCB on the shelf? The PCB finish you choose should be that with a good shelf life. For example, the ENEPIG has a shelf life of over 12 months.
Number Of Cycles
Different assembly mechanisms require varying cycles. This is how many times will the soldering occur?
Some finishing methods do not support multiple cycles, while others do.
There are PCBs for high-frequency applications and others for the lower counterparts. The suitability of the PCB to meet up with the operational frequency is quite dependent on the finishing type.
So, you have to choose a finishing method that will help the PCB work at the right frequency.
One thing is constant with circuits, and that’s heating. So some measures of voltage and current will be going through the circuit, and as a result, heat will accumulate.
But experts put factors in place to curb the heating scenario, including the makeup of the PCB. So the finishing on the PCB should be one with good thermal properties; able to resist heat.
Testing materials and components are common practice in this industry. First, you have to figure out if there will be a probing test on the PCB.
This is because not all finishing supports probing tests. However, ENEPIG does support the electrical probing test.
This should guide your decision.
Other factors include;
- The design of the components: e.g., fine pitch or not
- The volume of production
Is It Possible To Measure The Palladium Layer Thickness Of ENEPIG PCB?
It is possible to measure the palladium layer thickness. So, of course, it is; for this reason, we say that ENEPIG finishing deals with a thinner layer than the gold layer.
This is gotten from the micro section of the PCB. The microsection is the cross-section of the PCB that reveals its features or elements.
Manufacturers document the micro section, and this is a common practice. If you are not the fabricator, you should find the thickness information of the palladium in the documentation.
What Is The Basic ENEPIG Thickness Specification
ENEPIG involves several layers, and each of them has its basic thickness specifications. It all starts with the deposition of nickel, then palladium follows, and ends with the gold layer.
The first two processes are tagged electroless, while the last is immersion.
- Nickel should be at the range 3 to 5micrometers
- Palladium should be at the range 0.05 to 0.1 micrometers
- The gold layer should be at the range of 0.03 to 0.05 micrometers
For any inquiries or question on ENEPIG PCB, contact Venture Electronics now.