AC-DC Converter PCB PCB Stackup

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Why is an AC-DC Converter required?

An AC-DC Converter is a device that transfer an AC voltage to DC voltage.

Electricity suppy to homes it’s typically 100V or 200V AC.

On the other hand, most electronic devices operate at 3.3V or 5V DC.

Consequently, it is necessary to convert from AC to DC voltage.

Why is an AC-DC Converter required?
Why do we use DC to DC converters?

Why do we use DC to DC converters?

A DC-to-DC converter is an electronic circuit or electromechanical equipment that converts a source of directly current (DC) from one voltage level to another devices.

It is a typical of electric power converter. Power levels range from very low (small batteries) to very high (high-voltage power transmission).

What converts AC to DC in a computer?

A power supply unit (PSU) converts main of AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer.

Modern personal computers universally take switched mode power supplies.

Some power supplies have a manual switch for choosing input voltage, when others automatically adapt to the mains voltage.

What converts AC to DC in a computer?

For more than 10 years, Venture is the leading manufacturer and supplier of AC-DC Converter PCB and other electronic components.

We are serving our customers globally.

Here at Venture, we have a wide selection of AC-DC Converter PCB for different applications. We are manufacturing high-quality AC-DC Converter PCB at an affordable price.



Your Leading AC-DC Converter PCB Supplier in China

As a professional manufacturer and supplier of AC-DC converter PCB, we can provide an AC-DC converter PCB according to your design.

We can also supply them all over the world. In providing our products, we are using high-quality materials and the latest technology.

There are two types of converters that is widely used for AC-DC conversation purpose. First, is the traditional Transformer-base linear converter and the second one is SMPS, which stands for Switch Mode Power Supply.

The transformer-based linear converter uses a capacitor, voltage regulator, and a simple diode bridge. It uses simple diode bridge and capacitor to convert the Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

To regulate the output DC voltage, the transformer-based uses an optional voltage regulator. A simple diode bridge can be constructed with a single semiconductor device like DB107 or with 4 independent diodes like 1N4007.

The other type of converter, the SMPS or Switch mode power supply, uses high-frequency, small transformer, and a switching regulator to provide DC output.

We accept small or large quantity of your orders of AC-DC converter PCB.

For your inquiries, don’t hesitate to contact us and our team will be happy to serve you.

AC-DC Converter PCB: The Ultimate FAQ Guide


If you have any question about ac-dc converter, you will find the answer right here.

This is because this guide has all information about ac-dc converter.

Let’s dive right in.

What Is AC-DC Converter PCB?

AC DC Converter PCB

ac dc converter PCB

An AC-DC converter PCB is an electrical circuit used to transform an alternating current input (AC) into a direct current (DC).

AC-DC converter PCBs turn AC input to DC input by using rectifiers. They also adjust the voltage level using regulators and smoothen the pulsating DC using reservoir capacitors.

Which Are The Types Of AC-DC Converter PCB?

There are numerous variations with regards to the topologies of AC-DC Converter PCBs as follows:

Linear and Switch-mode

Based on how the output voltage is generated, converters can either be linear or switch-mode.

For example, in a linear AC-DC converter, the AC waveform is smoothed, rectified, and supplied to the DC load.

On the other hand, a switch-mode converter produces a high-frequency voltage pulse with pulse width modulation (PWM). They are more effective in transmitting power to the load but notorious for the noise made by the high-frequency switching.

Linear AC-DC converter PCBs produce a ‘clean’ and low-cost power supply. However, they are not efficient and easily heat up when powering heavy loads.

Linear ac dc connverter PCB

Linear ac dc converter PCB

Buck and Boost

Buck converters and boost converters function using a switching transistor that contains a feedback mechanism.

Instead of acting like a varistor, a switching converter switches to the moderate current produced from an inductor.

The buck topology designates a step-down power supply. Boost supply converts input to a greater output voltage.

Buck and Boost ac dc converter pcb

Buck and boost converter pcb

Isolated And Non-isolated

Using an isolated AC-DC converter PCB means that the AC input and DC output are physically separated.

However, an off-line or non-isolated power supply is connected between the output and input.

The inclusion of a transformer drastically reduces the efficiency of an isolated design AC-DC converter PCB. On the other hand, the non-isolated offers improved efficiency but with reduced safety.

Isolated ac dc converter PCB

Isolated ac dc converter pcb

Non-isolated ac dc conveter pcb

Non isolated ac dc converter pcb

 What Is The Maximum Operating Temperature Standard Of AC to DC Converter PCB?

The internal components temperature of an AC-DC converter PCB will be higher than ambient temperature. So it is when the actual product operates in a high-temperature environment.

For reliable operations of the converter PCB, the maximum ambient operating temperature should be 70° C. When the ambient temperature reaches 55°C, derating will be required.

Power derating will also be required if the AC-DC converter PCB works in a low-temperature environment. Again, it is because of the low-temperature features of the internal electrolytic capacitor and other internal components.

Why Do You Need VCC Capacitor In AC-DC Converter PCB?

AC DC Converter PCB Circuit

ac dc converter PCB circuit

A common collector voltage (VCC) capacitor is required to stabilize the PCB’s VCC voltage. Therefore, a capacitance of 2.2µF or anything above it is highly recommended.

What Is The Output Power And Voltage Of AC-DC Converter PCB Mount?

The output power of Mount AC-DC converter PCB ranges from 1W to 100W. Output voltages can be available from 3Vdc to 48Vdc.

What Are The Features Of AC-DC Converter PCB?

The various features include;

Parts of AC DC Conveter PCB

Parts of AC DC Converter PCB

  • Switching power modules
  • Low Ripple and Noise
  • Fully encapsulated plastic case
  • Regulated output
  • Universal Input Range 90-264VAC, 47-440Hz

Which Is The Best Design Topology For Low Power AC To DC Converter PCB?

Fly back designs are frequently used in low-power AC-DC converter PCBs.

Because of topology with the minimum possible component count, you can achieve due to a decrease in a board-mount AC-DC converter PCB.

A control IC directly samples the output voltage (Primary side regulation) or indirectly (secondary side regulation) in such a topology.

It then applies feedback in the form of frequency modulation or pulse-width, or sometimes both.

To bring the EMI down to statutory levels, components. In case of mains interruptions, a bulk capacitor provides hold-up time energy.

It will form a barrier between the output and the high voltage AC.

The ‘barrier’ created solid insulating material or the distance of separation across surfaces and through the air.

Components that go through the barrier, such as an optoisolator or a transformer, will be fabricated to provide appropriate isolation to gratify international safety agencies.

The downside of the simplicity of the fly back is that the internal voltages can sometimes be very high, usually 600V or more.

It means that high ripple currents will stress some components.

The output capacitors have to handle peak ripple currents, which can go as high as 1.5 to 2 times the value of the DC output.

The Capacitors ESR power is dissipated by the high ripple current, thus raising its temperature.

What Are The Main Components Of AC-DC Converter PCB?

Some of the main components include:

Integrated Circuit (IC 1)

It is used in a non-isolated type buck converter. Compared with the fly back converter, the internal MOSFETs drain current is increased.

Therefore, it is recommended to use the fly back converters’ max power output of around 50-70%.

Input Capacitor (C2)

The C1 capacitor is connected directly to an input line. The input line utilizes a bridge rectifier for the input AC voltage.

VCC Capacitor (C2)

The VCC capacitor is required to stabilize the VCC voltage of the IC generated from the output. Therefore, it is recommended that a capacitance of 2.2µF and above.

The C2 capacitor also serves to determine the IC’s startup time when the power is turned on. If the startup time needs to be adjusted, then another capacitance of 2.2µF and above can be selected.

Inductor (L1)

The L1 inductance is designated as the discontinuous mode. It will happen in the case of continuous mode.

Between reverse retrieval of the MOSFET output diode, reverse current flows to the output diode and MOSFET.

It happens when the MOSFET is turned on. The loss of the MOSFET and the output diode is increased due to the reverse current.

Current-sensing Resistor (R1)

This resistor limits the flow of current on the primary side, thus protecting against output overload.

The resistor is also used to compensate for the slope of current-mode control.

Following that, based on the input voltage. It is sometimes placed based on the input voltage and the inductor’s inductance.

You can also build a function AC Voltage chip for overload protection.

Output Capacitors (C5)

These capacitors are chosen centered on the output load’s allowable ripple current and peak-to-peak ripple voltage (Δ Vpp).

The output diode is off when the MOSFET is on.

At that time, the output capacitors supply current to the load.

The output Diode is on when the MOSFET is off. At that time, the load current is supplied, and the output capacitors are also charged.

The withstanding voltage of the capacitor should be set to around twice the output voltage.

Output Rectification Diode (D4)

A high-speed diode / fast recovery diode is recommended for use as the output rectification diode.

The temperature rise in the diode is checked after it has been assembled in the product.

How Do You Stop Output Noise In Switch-mode AC-DC Converter PCB?

Output noise is a combination of spikes and unwanted periodic ripples combined with random noise from external sources or the device.

The common ways to deal with the noise are;


In the same way, filters remove noise from a signal. They can also use them to remove noise from the power supply.

The output capacitors can be considered part of a filter that responds against the impedance output of the power supply circuit.

The noise is reduced by increasing the rate of the output capacitance.

As a result, the capacitors have an equivalent series inductance (ESL) and an equivalent series resistance (ESR).

Selecting capacitors with lower ESL and ESR will lower the noise.

Should take care because some power supply circuits utilize ESR for provision of error signal for feedback.

It means that by reducing it radically, say, using ceramic capacitors to replace electrolytic ones, the power supply will be unstable.

Can add a filter capacitor and a series inductor to reduce the output noise and the power supply’s natural output capacitance.

With the negligible loss, the inductor passes DC while supplying a high-frequency impedance.

The capacitor reacts against this and filters out the noise.

The supply’s high-frequency output impedance is increased in essence so that filtering can be more effective with smaller capacitors.


Appropriate bypassing of the control chips can also reduce noise in the AC-DC converter PCB. For example, ignoring power supply-fed chips will reduce noise at the chip’s power pins and not at the supply.

When bypassing the chips on the power supply circuit, the capacitor is put close to the power pin.

Ceramic capacitors (preferably surface -mount) are with low ESR, and ESL are employed.

The physical size of the capacitor will determine its effectiveness in the same way as its value.


A costly but effective method of reducing output noise in switch-mode AC-DC converter is putting second regulator on the power supply output.

It normally comprises a low-dropout (LDO) linear regulator.

It reduces any output ripple in magnitude order or more. Better yet, Can add an  LC or RC filter after the LDO to reduce the noise further.

The linear regulator noise is usually expressed as an RMS value above one or more frequency ranges.

Thus, Can use a reference chip in place of an LDO if a low-drift and very precise power source are required.

Amplifiers experience power supply rejection which can drop off significantly at higher frequencies.

Unfortunately, the power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) of linear regulators becomes worse at very high frequencies.

It can, however, remove such a frequency noise much easier with RC or LC filtering.

The general approach is eliminating noise at the input of the switcher.

Then bypassing and making sure the switching IC chip is low noise.

After this, a low-noise LDO linear regulator is picked, and an output filter is added.

Finally, the power supply rejection ratio of the chips being powered is carefully examined and intersected with the PSSR of the linear regulator.

It ensures that as much noise as possible is removed over the circuit’s frequency bandwidth.

A filter is then designed to remove adequate high-frequency noise to achieve the signal-path noise goals.

What Are The Disadvantages Of Transformer-based AC-DC Converter PCB?

AC DC converter PCB

AC DC converter PCB

  • Because a transformer is there, it might need a bigger space inside the product to fit the transformer or the converter circuit.
  • Due to the heaviness of the transformer, the overall weight of the product is unnecessarily increased.
  • In situations where the AC voltage drops significantly or the input AC voltage has the possibility of fluctuating.
  • The output AC voltage through the transformer will also decrease.
    It cannot use a 230V AC to 12V DC converter to power a 110V AC line.
    Therefore, an extra set is added for different input voltage levels.
  • Transformer-based AC-DC Converter PCBs are a costly choice despite not having an available input voltage range.
    The transformer itself can cost anything beyond 60% of the total production cost of the converter circuit.
  • Another disadvantage is the low conversion efficiency. The transformer wastes unnecessary energy by heating up.
  • The output of the DC voltage is susceptible to variability in the primary input. It means that it is never a bright idea to connect ICs or a microcontroller directly to a transformer-based AC-DC converter.

Which Are The Techniques Of Mitigating EMI In AC-DC Converter PCB?

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is electromagnetic energy that affects, through radiation or induction, the signaling in an electronic device.

The common techniques employed to mitigate EMI in an AC-DC converter PCB include;

Ground Plane

Circuits require a floating ground to work; thus, the ground plane is the first line of defense against EMI. In addition, the ground plane in an AC-DC converter PCB provides a 0-volt line of reference to the ground terminal of the power supply for the circuit’s return path.

Some common practices using the ground to reduce EMI include;

Using Multi-layered Board

If the ground plane is too small, adding an extra layer gives more options of handling traces of high speed on the board.

They can be routed in an inner layer noise will be lowered.

Use Of Split Ground Planes With Caution

Suppose there is a need to split the ground plane.

The reason has to be valid such as separating digital and analog grounds to avoid noise coupling.

This because split ground planes can radiate by acting as slot antennas.

Connect Decoupling Capacitors Or Bypass To The Ground Plane

Connecting them to the ground reduces the return path current.

It minimizes the loop size and, therefore, radiation.

The bypass capacitor must never be connected between a power plane and any unrelated ground pane. Again, it is because it can cause massive capacitive coupling.

Connecting Split Ground Planes At Single Points Only

More loops are created with an increase in common ground connections. It will drastically increase the EMI radiated by the converter.

Trace Layout

Traces are conductive paths containing flowing electrons in an active circuit on an AC-DC Converter PCB. It means that they are a cross or bend away from generating a fully radiating antenna.

Common trace layout best practices include;

Avoid Sharp Right-angle Bends

A 45° corner region increases capacitance, thus changing the characteristic impedance leading to reflections. However, it can easily mitigate it by skirting right angles.

Differential Traces Routed As Close As Possible

It intensifies the coupling factor conveying influenced noise into the common mode. Thus, it is less problematic at the input stage of a differential.

Keep The Signals Separate

High-speed traces like clock signals should be kept separate from low-speed signals. Likewise, it should also separate analog signals from digital signals.

Use Via Wisely

Vias are important when routing because they enable the use of multiple layers in an AC-DC converter PCB.

Additional capacitance and inductance into a circuit lead to reflections due to a change in characteristic impedance.

Can You Design AC-DC Converter PCB With Multiple Outputs?

Many electronic applications with internal circuits require multiple voltages for supply. Therefore, instead of using a single power source for each rail, a single power source bearing multiple outputs is used.

There are different ways of creating an AC-DC converter PCB with multiple outputs.

The feasibility varies based on the performance and compatibility of the application.

Transformers With Secondary Windings

Adding secondary windings or choke to a transformer is the simplest way of obtaining multiple outputs.

The voltage primary winding (Vpri) is related to the secondary voltage (Vsec) through the turns ratio.

It is the ratio of the number of secondary turns to the number of primary turns.

An additional secondary winding can obtain a second output with a turns ratio based on the turns ratio (Nș).

Coupled Chokes With Secondary Windings

The relationship between secondary and primary voltages does not apply.

However, the relationship between turns ratio and secondary voltages still applies. It makes it easy to add additional outputs.

Regulators And Additional Converters

Another possibility is to add an isolated DC-DC converter or a regulator powered from the source.

The input of such a connection has been isolated from the voltage and the primary and already stepped down.

It means that additional converters can be made cheap and smaller, which is easier than converting an extra voltage from the primary.

In Which IPC Class Do You Categorize AC-DC Converter PCB?

IPC categories reflect the levels of quality of each circuit board. For example, AC-DC converters fall under Class 2 (Dedicated Service Electronic Products).

These types of circuit boards are remarkable extended life and are highly reliable. In addition, unlike class 1, they adhere to very stringent standards.

In as much as they can run continuously, their operation is highly critical. Such a class of boards gets implemented in laptops, communication equipment, smartphones, and tablets.

How Do You Protect AC-DC Converter PCB From Surge Current From AC Mains?

An AC-DC converter PCB is prone to transients or surges from the AC mains.

Some standards (EN6100-4-4, EN6100-4-5) can regulate how the converter responds to such occurrences.

For the PCB converter to be protected, components such as a gas discharge tube (GDT) and a metal-oxide varistor (MOV) are used.

The MOV is a variable resistor. Its resistance automatically changes based on the voltage across. Its resistance increases with an increase in voltage across it, thus protecting the circuit from extreme voltage spikes.

The GDT diverts extra current to the ground line from the hotline. The use of an inert gas achieves this as the conductor amid the two lines.

When the voltage reaches a certain level, the composition of the gas makes it a poor conductor. However, a surge in voltage above that level ionizes the gas, making it a very efficient conductor.

The current is then passed on to the ground line till normal voltage levels are achieved. It then becomes a poor conductor.

What Is The Difference Between Conducted Noise And Radiated Noise In AC To DC PCB?

Conducted noise is that current that is passed out through a device’s power cord.

This type of noise enters into a common electrical power network and radiates there more efficiently.

These conducted noises range from 450 kHz to 30 MHz’s it leads to a disturbance to the nearby systems.

Radiated noise is the unintentional electromagnetic radiation that causes interference to the neighboring systems.

As a result, it leads to their malfunction.

Radiated noises range from 30 MHz to 40 GHz.

Which Are The Necessary Safety Approvals For AC-DC Converter PCB?

AC-DC converter PCBs, especially ones that include a mains isolation feature, undeniably focus on safety approvals because of their hazard potential.

Such devices must never pose any threat, whether in normal or abnormal operations.

Some of the safety approvals include;

EN 611204-7 An Application-independent Alternative

IEC/EN 61204-7 is developing as an application-neutral and interesting alternative.

The standard was created as part 7 of the 61204 standards series under the title ʺPower Supply Devices for low voltage DC output – Part 7ːSafety Requirements”.

IEC/61204-7 is titled ʺSafety Requirements for power semiconductor inverter systems and equipment – Part 1: General ʺ.

This standard product group is aimed as a basis for the advancement of various other product standards in fields like renewable energy and power electronics.

IEC/EN 61204-7 has also been referenced in 604204-1.

It is one of the most significant mechanical engineering electrical equipment standards for control power supply requirements.

This assists with assessments depending on the Machinery Directive.

EN 61558 A Pioneer for New Technologies

IEC/EN 61558 standards series focuses on the safety assessment of transformers, chokes, power supply units, and corresponding combinations.

In addition, a standard has been generated that addresses testing of switching power supplies and special requirements.

Additionally, part -2-16 contains Annex BB, highlighting the tests and specific requirements of transformers.

The transformers should have an operating frequency of 500Hz or more with no restrictions on their application scope.

This standard also increasingly deals with new technological potentials in expanding transformers and their switched-mode power supplies.

The standard additionally offers safety assessment solutions for the use of Fully Insulated Winding wires, which are partially included in other standards.

Also, in this standard, IE/61558-2-16 offers procedures to minimize aging, electrical and mechanical risks while providing instructions for practical tests.

How Do You Test The Ripple And Noise In AC-DC Converter PCB?

The ripple and noise are unwanted random, and periodic AC variation overlaid on a DC output. Therefore, it also affects the accuracy of the production.

Using An Oscilloscope

As an oscilloscope performs ripple and noise measurements, it is not the best choice at high levels.

For such an analysis, must use very high-quality probes and very short cable.

It is because the cables leading to the tips of the oscilloscope form a loop.

As a result, parasitic inductance is created by the ground conductors and probe the negatively affects the measured signal.

When used with high input impedance, low-level oscilloscopes have high background noise. Furthermore, if the ripple is slight, its visualization is complicated and uncomfortable. Therefore, it is essential to eliminate the DC element of the acquired signal and increase the small AC signal to measure a superimposed ripple on a direct supply voltage.

The capacitor is decoupled with an AC input in series with the cable, thus creating a basic high pass filter.

Measuring With A Tester

Since ripple voltage is a nominal AC voltage sitting above a DC offset, it can be measured using a digital multimeter.

Unfortunately, this operation is inaccurate, inconvenient, and challenging.

For this analysis, the regulator output and the digital multimeter probes are connected.

The black is attached to the negative terminal and the red to the positive.

The “AC Voltage” mode is selected by turning the tester knob.

The meter only measures the ripple voltage, the AC element of the signal, if present.

The value of ripple voltage amplitude measured is shown on display.

For example, if a value of 0.00Mv is displayed, it most likely means that the ripple is absent.

If the ripple voltage is to be correctly characterized, then its frequency has to be measured. Therefore, should pay attention to the type of AC voltage measured by the tester.

It could be an average value, peak-to-peak, a practical value, or any other.

The waveform from the ripple is often not sinusoidal, but it is always important to check the type of multimeter measurement.

Hum Sound And Audio Software

can adopt less usual measurement methods for high ripple levels.

One of these is to connect the converter or output power supply to a sound card input and digitize the signal from the converter.

It is done using audio analysis software. With sufficient amplification of the AC signal, even low ripple levels are discernable.

The ripple can boom out in the loudspeaker if it has a low frequency.

What Is The Test Standard Of Radiated Susceptibility (RS) Of The AC-DC Converter PCB?

The internal circuit of an AC-DC converter PCB is such that the loop regulation circuit and the control circuit will impact the everyday work when facing radiation.

The RS test standard for switching power supply is IEC/EN 61000-4-3.

It is used to assess whether the converter works normally.

The strong RS is near the switching power supply (such as an intercom or other strong radiation equipment).

Therefore, the radiated susceptibility will be several times greater than the lab.

It means that the strong radiation equipment should be as far away as possible from the switching supply while in use.

How Many Input Ground Pins Does An AC-DC Converter PCB Have?

An AC-DC converter PCB generally has three ground pins.

These are the Live Wire (L), Neutral wire (N), and the Floating Ground (PE).

The floating ground is usually connected to the ground wire in the power grid or the equipment casing.

Does The Transient Change Of Input Affect The Efficiency Of AC-DC Converter PCB?


It does.

The transient change in voltage of the input wire may damage the AC-DC converter PCB.

If the transient voltage change at the input terminal is higher than the maximum limit of the input converter.

Then the protection circuit needs to be connected at the input terminal.

How Do You Choose The Best EMI Filter For AC-DC Converter PCB?

The main purpose of a filter is to attenuate emissions that come from the equipment.

They arise from a combination of high-speed data lines, power supplies, and internal electronics.

Numerous mechanical formats are available for filter selection.

Chassis-mount types, usually with six-sided shielding and direct fixing to a grounded chassis, are very efficient with short wiring to an inlet connector and a fuse.

IEC (International Electro technical Commission) inlet connectors with built-in filters are a favorite choice with snap-in and screw mounting.

However, they require one or two fuses according to the environment of the application.

What are the Applications of AC-DC Converter PCB Assembly?

AC-DC converter PCBs are used in televisions, cell phones, computers, and various other consumer electronic devices.

They are also used in telecommunication equipment, medical and military equipment, industrial machinery, kitchen appliances, and commercial merchandise that use DC motors.

ac dc conveter PCB

AC DC Converter PCB

How Do You Specify An AC-DC Converter PCB To Your Contract Manufacturer (CM)?

You have to give the following specifications to your contract manufacturer;

  • The purpose or intended use of the converter
  • Give the basic considerations and electrical properties and characteristics required.
  • Safety certifications required

Depending on your unique specifications and requirements, Venture Electronics will design custom ac dc converter PCB.

Contact us today for all your ac dc converter PCB needs.

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